A characteristic feature of weeds is their extremely high fecundity, the ability of seeds to spread over long distances, persist in soil for a long time, actively propagate vegetatively. Moreover, they are characterized by a high viability and plasticity under different environmental conditions. In the vineyards of Ukraine meets more than 120 weed species, of which about 60% belong to the bipartite one-year, around 10% - to one-year cereal and more than 30% - to the tap root and korneotpryskovym broad-leaved perennials. The greatest harmfulness rhizomatous perennial grasses differ, which are represented by a small number of species.
Annuals and biennials weeds reproduce primarily by seeds. Of annual weeds in vineyards more common spring (wood louse, common lambsquarters, common amaranth, millet, chicken, foxtail gray and green), wintering (shepherd's purse, thlaspi arvense) and winter (field fire, fire, roof). Perennial weeds (clover yellow, curled thistle) in the first year form a rosette of leaves, and next year flower and fruit. Perennial weeds, fruit a few times, multiply by seeds and rhizomes (yarrow, mugwort, couch grass, Cynodon digitate, GUM) or root suckers (field bindweed, yellow sow thistle, sow thistle pink).
To combat the weeds in the vineyards use herbicides contact (atrazine, gerbatoks, diuron, karagard 3587, simazine) and systemic (dalapon, Roundup, fosulen) actions.
Contact, or soil, herbicides penetrate the plant through the root system and partly through the underground parts of stems. Atrazine and diuron can enter plants through aerial part and organs. Soil herbicides against weeds are most active during seed germination and initial growth of plants.
These sensitive: wood louse, common lambsquarters, Stellaria, shepherd's purse, radish, wild, gray foxtail, green foxtail, amaranth thrown back, amaranth white cocklebur common.
Systemic herbicides penetrate the plant through the leaves and other aerial organs and tissues are distributed to the roots. The high activity of systemic drugs is shown at an air temperature of 17-25 ° C in the sun. They are sensitive perennial grassy weeds: couch grass, Cynodon, Guma.
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