The use of grapes for landscaping
Grapes can be grown not only in the vineyards, but also the walls, arbors, galleries, courtyards and parks. Near-wall and bowline culture of grapes found in resort areas spread. Grapes, covering the walls of houses and public buildings, not only pleases the eye - it refreshes the foliage and healthier air. Vines can be used for device shady arbors and galleries in yards, parks and gardens. Nice to relax in the gazebo in hot summer days. Grapes can decorate courtyards, building schools and hospitals. In spas and country houses can make all the tracks in grape galleries and along the fences to arrange a high trellis of grapes.
The rapid growth and flexibility allow the vines in the short term, 3-4 years, and galleries make summerhouses all shapes and sizes, according to the location of buildings, layout of parks, gardens, front gardens. This is particularly important in emerging towns, where for a long time to wait for the shade of new trees.
The grapes grown on the walls, terraces, pavilions and in the galleries, gives very good yields. Does not require large additional costs and resources, it gives excellent results. The value of the wall and bowline culture, among other things, is that it allows for the cultivation of grapes such area where no other plant, fruits, and can not grow. Bushes of any grape variety best feel and abundant fruit when they have to go up to the high support and high trunk to form a powerful branching, and in the wall and culture of the bowline winegrower there is no need to limit the size of the bushes. The Wall - Finished support, a sufficiently high and wide - there where grow the bush. Provide one or a few bushes fertilizer, watering - it simple. It is easy to arrange them so that they receive good sunlight. Maintenance work required is not so much. Forming and cutting questions in these circumstances are very clear and do not cause any doubts. You can apply well-established agricultural practices, allowing to grow strong, tall bushes.
That is why in the wall and bowline culture grape plant may disclose all of his strength and serve as not only a brilliant ornament, but also give the highest yields of valuable products. You need only raise his skill and care for him. And this, of course, need to know its properties and characteristics of his claim to the environment and the techniques by which you can best meet these requirements.
It is very important in each district to choose to grow those grapes that are best suited to local soil and climatic conditions. When selecting varieties to grow on the walls and pavilions must also consider the features of this method of culture.
Grapes - heat-loving plants, shrubs and most of its varieties can be damaged by winter frosts. In all regions of Ukraine (except for the southern coast) in the industrial plantations of grape bushes for winter shelter. In the wall of culture, of course, impossible to hide the bush, so to grow on the walls and pavilions is very important to select varieties that have a certain resistance to frost. It is above all sorts relating to the form of Isabella: Isabella, Lydia, Pocklington, Rogers, etc. These varieties inferior to the European quality of fruit, surpass them in their tolerance to adverse growing conditions, including resistance to frost. Therefore, they can be used for wall and bowline culture in all regions of Ukraine. In general in Ukraine can be grown for this purpose the European and Central Asian varieties.
True, the European varieties of grapes on the walls of houses and summer houses, abandoned for the winter not sheltered heavily damaged by frost. But the reason for this, as the long-term observations are mistakes made by amateur growers.
The first is that the bushes heavily overload the harvest. As a result, annual wood vines ripen poorly or even grass remains. Biennial and perennial vines, due to depletion of the bush, as poorly prepared for the winter, and this leads to severe damage. Especially dangerous overload harvest in the early years of fruiting, when the bushes have not yet accumulated reserves in perennial stems..
The second error - excessive and untimely (in the 2nd half of summer) application of nitrogen fertilizer, which causes a luxuriant growth of bushes at the end of the growing season, and this interferes with the preparation of plants for the winter.
Often find themselves unprepared shrubs for winter injury due to the strong mildew disease, which many growers, amateur, unfortunately, are not adequate to combat. Bushes, mildew sick, lose a significant portion of the leaves, because of what the vine does not ripen.
Finally, the malformation bowline shrubs also reduces their resistance to frost.
When correcting these errors can be successfully cultivated many valuable European and Central Asian varieties of grapes on the walls of houses and summer houses in the coastal regions of Ukraine. Here they are the major varieties of wall and bowline cultures. Moreover, carefully fulfilling all rules farming can provide them with sufficient resistance to frost and in some areas, located north of the coastal zone.
Of varieties isabella , i.e. varieties belonging to the species Vitis Labruska are best suited for this purpose, Isabella, Lydia, Pocklington, Lindley Rogers and Edna. The first two types are common in all grape-growing regions of Ukraine. The remaining four - Pocklington, Lindley Rogers and Edna - grown only in the Odessa area.
Of the European varieties of grapes to the wall and bowline culture recommended Gandzha White, Pearl Saba, Catalonia winter, Nyagra Korn, Madeleine Anzhevin, Muscat of Alexandria, White Muscat, Muscat Hamburg, Senso, Seedling Malengra, Tsitsa capri Chaush, Chasselas White, Chasselas Muscat, Chasselas Rose.
Of course, not every region of Ukraine is on the walls of houses and summer houses to grow all the above varieties. Each natural area should be selected for this class is most appropriate for local conditions.
With regard to the suitability of certain varieties of grapes to the wall or bowline cultures territory of Ukraine can be divided into the following areas:
I. The zone of unlimited varietal composition. This is a relatively small area of the southern coast, where in ancient times grown in pavilions all European varieties of grapes. It is particularly common and very good at Catalunya Winter. Of the other varieties in this area is recommended to raise Katta Kurgan, Nim-rank, Muscat of Alexandria, Muscat white and pink, Muscat Hamburg, early varieties of Chasselas White, Chasselas Rose, Chasselas and Muscat Chaush. In general, on the southern coast, again, you can put any kind.
II. Seaside Area. Includes Odessa, Evpatoria, Sevastopol, Feodosia, Kerch, Berdyansk, Mariupol and other cities and towns on the shores of the Black (with the exception of the Southern coast of Crimea) and Azov Seas. In this area you can put all the European species, except for those with bad vine ripen and are so severely injured by frosts.
It is true that in this area, as shown by years of practice, every 7-8 years in European varieties due to winter frost damaged vines, especially the annual shoots. However, the bushes in one summer, thanks to strong growth of shoots from long-term timber fully restore the aerial parts and re-shoots and leaves cover the area they occupied. Harvest in these years is small, but next year the bushes come into full fruition. Thus, the European varieties in the wall and bowline culture in this region never lost its decorative qualities, but a once in 7-8 years, greatly reduces the yield.
For the coastal zone can be recommended varieties Isabella, Lydia, Pearl Saba, Chasselas White, Chasselas Rose, Chasselas muscat, Chaush, Senso, Gandzhinsky White, Black Kishmish, in more sheltered places - Nimrang and Katta Kurgan.
III. Zone partially limited varietal composition. It includes the settlements located between the second (coastal) area and a line running along the boundary of the Odessa region of Moldova and the Dniester to continue in the direction of Berezovka - Nikolaev - Kherson - Melitopol - Seaside (north-west of Mariupol).
It is best to plant early varieties, which are well matured wood of annual shoots. The main varieties are recommended for the third zone Isabella and Lydia, and from the European varieties - Pearl Saba, Chasselas White, Chasselas Rose, Chasselas muscat, Chaush, Gandzhinsky White, Black Kishmish.
IV. Restricted area of the varietal. This zone includes the northern parts of the Odessa, Mykolayiv, Kherson, Zaporozhye regions. It should be used early European varieties such as Pearl Saba, Chasselas White, Chasselas muscat, Madeleine Anzhevin, Seedling Malengra. But the planting of these varieties should not be brought from more southern regions. We need to try to acquire the cuttings on the ground in bushes, which are not sheltered for the winter and hibernate satisfactorily. In the eastern part of the zone, more precisely in the Donets Basin, the climate is more severe here to the wall and culture bowline can be used by Isabella and Lydia.
V. Zone of the northern vineyards. It includes all regions of Ukraine, other than those listed above. Here, more or less reliable in winter only for Isabella and Lydia. In this zone, in front of amateur growers task is to bring new varieties to the wall and bowline culture. Of course, the creation of new varieties to the wall of culture is of great importance for all regions of Ukraine, but it is especially important in the fifth zone.
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