Growing grapes

 

 

 

Grape varieties and their characteristics

Table varieties of grapes

Technical varieties of grapes

The classification of grape varieties on the novelty

The choice of grape variety

 

Tab is vineyards

Biological characteristics of grapes

Inventory winegrower

Preparation for tab a vineyard

Planting of vines

The quality of seedlings grape

Formation and pruning vines

Guyot system

 

Wine glasshouse culture

Soil conditions and location

Planting grapes

Pruning and forming grapes

Pollination of grapes

Decimation grapes

Supplementary feeding and watering grapes

The harvest of grapes

Pests and diseases of grapes

 

The basic rules grafting grapes

Grafting of grapes eye or bud

Grafting of grapes in a split green shoots

Grafting of grapes to split trunk

Using last year's grape cuttings

Grafting of grapes "green on green'

The method of budding grapes

Kilchevanie of grapes

Care of grafted grape plants

Reproduction of the grape

Wintering grapes

Derivation of frost varieties of grapes

 

The use of grapes for landscaping

Planting grapes at the walls and arbors

Formation and pruning vines for greenery

 

Care of vineyards

Artificial pollination of grapes

Fertilizers for grapes

Recovering the vines from frost damage

Elimination of thinning grapes

Pruning of vine

Green operations in the Vineyard

Improving the quality of grapes

 

Methods of protection of grapes

Pests of grapevine

Diseases of the vine

Weed plants

Protection of vineyards from disease

Definition of diseases of grapes on the external signs of injury

Protecting grapes from pests and diseases

Characteristics of herbicides permitted for use

Precautions when working with pesticides

 

Collection and processing of grapes

Collection and storage of grapes

Grapes in cooking

 

Making a home of grape wine

Dry wines

Dessert wines

Manufacturing technology of sweet dessert of grape wine

The composition of grape wine

Diseases of the wine

Classification of wines

Table wines

Local wines

Quality wines

Wine tasting

Making wine from fruit and berries

Storage of wine

 

Culture of wine drinking

Culture of wine consumption

 

Manufacturing technology of sweet dessert of grape wine

Sweet dessert wine. The Approximate characteristics of the wine, alcohol 15%, sugar 15-20%, acidity 0,8%. Before crush the berries, they categorically it is forbidden to wash, not to wash off the yeast. For the same reason it is impossible to gather berries after heavy rains. In the process of making wine perfectly itself becomes lighter. After collection the ripe bunch of grapes is separated from crests, crush and collected pulp placed in a suitable container with a wide neck. Capacity must be filled in the Bondage of its volume. This can be wooden or plastic barrel, a glass bottle or enamelled pot, but no in no case aluminium or copper. Temperature of the room, in which will be the fermentation process, should be 18-23 °C. This is a very it is important. At higher temperatures, the quality of the wine will be more low, it may even happen acetic acid sour fermentation and wine turn into vinegar. At lower temperature of fermentation can not begin. That's why, if the berries are gathered when the outdoor temperature is below 15 °C, they cannot be immediately split up, and it takes a few hours to wait, that they are warmed up to the optimal temperature. Capacity with pulp need to cover the net cloth, not to start drosophila. On the following day must begin fermentation. Squash will rise stand out carbon dioxide up, forming a free run over the cap. Rising cap pulp need some time in day mix. If this is not done, squash can acidified. On 5th day pulp squeeze through a colander, and marc be used for feeding of beast, or throw them in a compost heap. During the fermentation, the pulp retrieved located in the skin of grapes colouring and aromatic substances, and the wine, cooked in this way, much more fragrant, more intensely colored and extractive than wine, produced by depressed the juice. When pulp formed must fill the container to 3/4 the volume and put on maturation. In the traditional wine-making recommend put the water gate, that is tightly closed container lid or the cork, and the resulting carbon dioxide pushing through a hose, released in with a glass of water. But it's very inconvenient for refilling, add sugar and etc. Water trap set for isolation of wandering the wort from oxygen air that has not happened souring. But while there is an intensive fermentation - generously allocated carbon dioxide. And if the capacity is not tightly cover lid or cap, the free run and cover a layer of carbon dioxide, which is heavier than air and is a kind of cap, protecting the wort from contact with air. Thus, you can do without water gate, and the released gas will go through looseness between the tank and lid. At this point you need to follow, to the space between the free run and the cover was minimal. To do this, the capacity of the you need to constantly topped up to the extent of the attenuation of fermentation) of the other, less the tank.

Of 1 % of sugar is produced 0.6 % of alcohol. But as the majority of grape varieties in the central regions of Ukraine rarely accumulate sugar more than 20 %, then get a sweet wine fortress more than 10-12% , it is impossible. For this you need to add the sugar. In 2-3 days prevailing wort must try to sugar. As soon as you feel that wort has become acidic (mean, sugar has already been transformed into alcohol), you need to on his every liter add 50 g sugar, thoroughly mixed. So repeat several times, until you feel that sugar content is not reduced. So, fermentation mostly ceased, and wort has accumulated a wealth of alcohol about 15 %. The fact that the bulk of the yeast can't live in an environment with alcoholicity above 15-16%. That is, they themselves himself destroy and settle to the bottom.

From the beginning and up to this point (depending the temperature) must wanders 2-4 weeks. Suspended particles fall on the bottom, and must partially lightened. It must be removed from the draft, using the siphon and add sugar to taste. Some offer after this place a container under water seal in the basement for further clarification and aging of wine, which lasts for several months. But also on the this stage of the water trap water trap for wine fortress of 15% is not needed. Wine with such alcoholicity already not sour. The fact that this time will be go very quiet fermentation, and in a tightly closed container (for example, in glass container) can be created this pressure of CO2 (carbon dioxide), that it simply tear. In order to do this, you need to suppress the vital functions of the remaining especially strong ones yeast. Yeast bacteria at temperatures above 70 °C perish. Therefore, the wine must be has to be pasteurized at the temperature of 75-80 °C within 2 hours. One of the options - immerse in water bath bottles of wine on 3-10 l. Cylinders must be incomplete poured as some time will go intensive fermentation with plenty allocation of foam. After the heat treatment tanks topped up to the top and a tight block traffic jams. On the next the day after it cools down, they stand in the cellar. Warmed fine wine lightened and, quickly maturing becomes soft, velvety and harmonious, remains several times to remove it from the sediment.

Domestic wine received without fortification, much softer and more harmonious fortified, so as alcohol in them fully assimilated (merged) with the elements of wine.

Dessert wine is the drink strong. Correctly cooked, it is not subject to acetic souring and does not grow mouldy in any temperature storage.

For the preparation of the dessert wine grapes it is best to collect in overrippe state, because he has more sugar and the wine is obtained with a pleasant raisins tone.

The wine spilled in bottles should be stored in a a dry, cool (from 8 to 16 °C) room, dining-rooms and champagne wines - always in horizontal position.

Each wine has its own optimal duration of life: white table and champagne - 3-5 years; red table - 5-10 years; dessert - 20 years; liqueur and spirits of wine - 100 years and more.

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Выращивание винограда

 

Growing grapes