Growing grapes


Grape varieties and their characteristics

Table varieties of grapes

Technical varieties of grapes

The classification of grape varieties on the novelty

The choice of grape variety

Tab is vineyards

Biological characteristics of grapes

Inventory winegrower

Preparation for tab a vineyard

Planting of vines

The quality of seedlings grape

Formation and pruning vines

Guyot system

Wine glasshouse culture

Soil conditions and location

Planting grapes

Pruning and forming grapes

Pollination of grapes

Decimation grapes

Supplementary feeding and watering grapes

The harvest of grapes

Pests and diseases of grapes

The basic rules grafting grapes

Grafting of grapes eye or bud

Grafting of grapes in a split green shoots

Grafting of grapes to split trunk

Using last year's grape cuttings

Grafting of grapes green on green

The method of budding grapes

Kilchevanie of grapes

Care of grafted grape plants

Reproduction of the grape

Wintering grapes

Derivation of frost varieties of grapes

The use of grapes for landscaping

Planting grapes at the walls and arbors

Formation and pruning vines for greenery

Care of vineyards

Artificial pollination of grapes

Fertilizers for grapes

Recovering the vines from frost damage

Elimination of thinning grapes

Pruning of vine

Green operations in the Vineyard

Improving the quality of grapes

Methods of protection of grapes

Pests of grapevine

Diseases of the vine

Weed plants

Protection of vineyards from disease

Definition of diseases of grapes on the external signs of injury

Protecting grapes from pests and diseases

Characteristics of herbicides permitted for use

Precautions when working with pesticides

Collection and processing of grapes

Collection and storage of grapes

Grapes in cooking

Making a home of grape wine

Dry wines

Dessert wines

Manufacturing technology of sweet dessert of grape wine

The composition of grape wine

Diseases of the wine

Classification of wines

Table wines

Local wines

Quality wines

Wine tasting

Making wine from fruit and berries

Storage of wine

Culture of wine drinking

Culture of wine consumption

Site map

Reproduction of the grape

Grape seed propagated no way, and vegetatively, that is "live" parts of the bush - detached rhizomes (layering), segments of ripe or green vines. At the same time securely retained the qualities of the mother bush, which came to your taste.

Reproduction of grapes - a crucial moment, because a healthy and highly productive plantation begins, essentially, with the cutting. For the procurement of planting materials emit the most powerful and highly accurate set of bushes varietal identity. Well matured vines have a coloring of internodes and nodes corresponding to the given class (yellowish brown or brownish-colored with intense knots). Interstices of their medium, not too long and not short-cut, the core rod is no more than 1/3 of the shoot. Bending his pipe produces mature lung crackles.

Another subtlety - to check their degree of maturation reaction to iodine (this element in the starch granules stain dark purple). To do this, moisten the ends of the cuttings of cut of 1% m solution of iodine. Fully ripened vine will become almost black, and underdeveloped - pale green. Harvesting should not harm the mother of the crown of the bush, which bears the next harvest (young fruit arrows).

Should not be taken chibouks with coppice, wild, of lush tall shoots. Of the available well-developed one-year increments with end fruiting, dumped at a scrap of grape units should be used more matured middle and lower zone of the vines (including stepchildren and well-developed). The thickness of the upper edge of the cutting - not less than 6.10 millimeters.

Terms of the workpiece in a covering areas of viticulture - the autumn pruning bushes (which gives a strong guarantee preservation of eyes, as a winter shelter does not exclude them or freezing of damping off). However, where the grapes are not hiding, the workpiece is held closer to spring, when it announced the results of overwintering grape.

Cut off from the mass of shoots and the formation of the selection of planting cuttings performed on the same day strictly on grades. At the bottom of his pipe shears cut under the knot while maintaining a small stump (1-2 cm) in the upper part - the middle of the internode. Trying to make fuller use of the lower parts of shoots, adjacent to the fruit direction. Here, the most close-and better-developed eyes (and it ensures enhanced rooting), and also have the opportunity to leave chibouk "heel" or "crutch" (Fig. 1), which activate the root formation. In contrast, strongly curved rod discarded and flat, with zigzag internodes, as well as damaged by hail, oidium, spotty necrosis and viral short nodes.

The standard length of the cutting - 60-70 cm (a 15 - 20 cm more than the optimum depth of seal into the soil before planting will refresh slices, dried during storage). Sometimes engage in double bars (120-140 cm), which better withstand desiccation.

Planting cuttings

Pict. 1. Planting cuttings

a - normal, b - with a heel, c - with crutch

Each assorted party binds tightly in a bun, where the lower ends of the cuttings in the same direction. To beam necessarily attached label. Prior to bookmark on winter storage cover shaped beams with a damp cloth, moss or straw. Critical stage - to save the viability of planting until spring. You can bury the bundles of cuttings in the ground, selecting a place uncovered on the site and insure top defensive mound coated. Another option is placed chibouks in a sandbox, installed in a basement room or major country house. Perhaps keeping the refrigerator in the kitchen: small bundles, tightly wrapped in foil packet, lay under the freezer. But in any case to avoid mildew treated cuttings before laying a 5% solution of ferrous sulfate (2-3-second immersion). From time to time check the status of "suspended" chibouk, using the thaw. And at the end of the storage media before planting in soil or immunization is carried out selectively control sprouting eyes. To do this, cuttings from the various beams are placed in water or wet sawdust. The result is visible within a few days.

The final cycle of working with cuttings - their preparation for planting (furrowing, soaked, kilchevanie). First of all, taken out of the store refresh shank slices, that is, remove the dried ends of the at least one internode. Then discarded those in which the damaged kidney, browned wood.

In order to stimulate root formation, furrow cortex and phloem of 1-2 lower internodes and nodes. Furrows scratched by the teeth saws. Then, when the moisture content of cuttings is reduced, they are soaked in water for several days, plunging into the water on the Ouse length. This technique facilitates the transition of nutrients accumulated in chibouk in soluble mobile compounds.

This also accelerates the development of roots. Excellent results can bring, and preplant kilchevanie cuttings. Here, they act simultaneously elevated temperatures (the lower part, where the faster dissolve callus and roots make their way), and lower, slows down the melting eyes. This procedure is rather complex, requires specialized equipment, complicated installations (greenhouses, hothouses, etc.). A more affordable option for fans, suitable for small volume of cuttings is shown in Pict. 2.

Ripped open a hole for the sun spot deep in length and diameter chibouk 25-30 cm bottom layer of sand sprinkled on a set bunch of ready-to upper landing cuttings kidneys down. Poured sand pit so that the layer between it and the edges of the shank was at least 5 cm on top and add the steamed chips ground, covered with glass frame. And to the surrounding soil pit to a depth of not warmed by the sun, mulch meter strip of manure, straw or moss (layer 10-12 cm). Development located at the bottom of holes is inhibited by a well-warmed upper part accelerates root formation.

The simplest kilchevatel chibouk

Pict. 2. The simplest kilchevatel chibouk:

1 - "inverted" shanks, 2 - backfill with sand, and 3 - insulated coating, 4 - a glazed frame, 5 - insulating mulch

Known as the experience kilchevaniye room, where resists heat bulbs with cold water or ice (Pict. 3).

Other works associated planting the cuttings in soil, are waxing the upper sections and handling the bottom of the stimulants. The easiest and most affordable stimulant, which appeared recently in the sale - the drug "Yuka."

Favorite type of grape can be propagated vegetatively from a single - stacking cuttings, rooting cuttings or vaccinations. In all these three options is used as a ripe, and green vines.

The scheme of a room kilchevatel

Pict. 3. The scheme of a room kilchevatel:

1 - a tank with cold water, 2 - Cooling bucket with tight lid, 3 - is taking root cuttings, 4 - control thermometer, 5 - a covering cans (no bed), 6 - low-power light bulbs, 7 - vent, 8 - dust mulch

Offshoot breeding most rapidly and reliably recreates the new vines. Spend it as follows.

Choose the bottom of the hive cells of two powerful wild flight, destined for extra bags, placed them in the autumn, before the shelter, in both directions along the trellis in shallow grooves (25-30 cm). On the way to the bushes being removed in the pit deepened to 0.5 m (Fig. 4). To escape offshoot previously removed not fallen leaves, tendrils, and stepsons, pit fill with humus, soil and vines are sprayed with a solution nitrafen (2%). Align ground, profusely sprinkled with layering.

The following spring sprouted shoots develop, which makes it possible to rapidly form a pinched by first sleeve, and possibly fruit arrows. This is facilitated, in particular, deliberate underutilization of crop mother bush. Branch of the young growth from the "cancer" can be done in 2-3 years. And the "umbilical cord" cut the middle to mutually strengthen their root system.

Options for laying cuttings

Pict. 4. Options for laying cuttings

1 - the mother shrub, 2 - steady arm, 3 - horizontal rooting, 4 - the

Less deep (15 cm) horizontal cuttings of mature vines are used for reproduction in spring-rooted seedlings. Pinned escape the rigors of land sprinkled fertilized, watered with warm water and manganese, protect mulching roller. Line slips cover the entire film (before the appearance of lines of seedlings emerged in the interstices). In the autumn, "the track" mint cuttings across the number of young shoots obtained, each carefully selected with the root system and are seated on the plantation. To penetrated by roots clod taken out painlessly, pre-pour in a protective shell offshoot vines - old bucket without a bottom cut in plastic bags of fertilizer (with holes), self-made cylinders of plywood or plastic.

The second option - the green slips. The technology is almost the same, but work should start with the 2nd half of July, when the kicks for this purpose (not minted) shoots reached the desired length and will begin their lignification. Sometimes, in short increments, can be "landed" a vine with long sleeves. End of green cuttings, raised up, pinch out at 2-3 leaf to root better vintage, but the underlying leaves carefully removed. Appear at the top left stepchildren, the inflorescence and better break off. Keep the cuttings under the control of summer (irrigation, mulch, garter, anti-mildew).

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