Grape seed propagated no way,
and vegetatively, that is "live" parts of the bush - detached rhizomes
(layering), segments of ripe or green vines. At the same time securely
retained the qualities of the mother bush, which came to your taste.
Reproduction of grapes - a
crucial moment, because a healthy and highly productive plantation
begins, essentially, with the cutting. For the procurement of planting
materials emit the most powerful and highly accurate set of bushes
varietal identity. Well matured vines have a coloring of internodes and
nodes corresponding to the given class (yellowish brown or
brownish-colored with intense knots). Interstices of their medium, not
too long and not short-cut, the core rod is no more than 1/3 of the
shoot. Bending his pipe produces mature lung crackles.
Another subtlety - to check
their degree of maturation reaction to iodine (this element in the
starch granules stain dark purple). To do this, moisten the ends of the
cuttings of cut of 1% m solution of iodine. Fully ripened vine will
become almost black, and underdeveloped - pale green. Harvesting should
not harm the mother of the crown of the bush, which bears the next
harvest (young fruit arrows).
Should not be taken chibouks
with coppice, wild, of lush tall shoots. Of the available well-developed
one-year increments with end fruiting, dumped at a scrap of grape units
should be used more matured middle and lower zone of the vines
(including stepchildren and well-developed). The thickness of the upper
edge of the cutting - not less than 6.10 millimeters.
Terms of the workpiece in a
covering areas of viticulture - the autumn pruning bushes (which gives a
strong guarantee preservation of eyes, as a winter shelter does not
exclude them or freezing of damping off). However, where the grapes are
not hiding, the workpiece is held closer to spring, when it announced
the results of overwintering grape.
Cut off from the mass of
shoots and the formation of the selection of planting cuttings performed
on the same day strictly on grades. At the bottom of his pipe shears cut
under the knot while maintaining a small stump (1-2 cm) in the upper
part - the middle of the internode. Trying to make fuller use of the
lower parts of shoots, adjacent to the fruit direction. Here, the most
close-and better-developed eyes (and it ensures enhanced rooting), and
also have the opportunity to leave chibouk "heel" or "crutch" (Fig. 1),
which activate the root formation. In contrast, strongly curved rod
discarded and flat, with zigzag internodes, as well as damaged by hail,
oidium, spotty necrosis and viral short nodes.
The standard length of the
cutting - 60-70 cm (a 15 - 20 cm more than the optimum depth of seal
into the soil before planting will refresh slices, dried during
storage). Sometimes engage in double bars (120-140 cm), which better
Pict. 1. Planting cuttings
a - normal, b - with a heel, c - with crutch
Each assorted party binds
tightly in a bun, where the lower ends of the cuttings in the same
direction. To beam necessarily attached label. Prior to bookmark on
winter storage cover shaped beams with a damp cloth, moss or straw.
Critical stage - to save the viability of planting until spring. You can
bury the bundles of cuttings in the ground, selecting a place uncovered
on the site and insure top defensive mound coated. Another option is
placed chibouks in a sandbox, installed in a basement room or major
country house. Perhaps keeping the refrigerator in the kitchen: small
bundles, tightly wrapped in foil packet, lay under the freezer. But in
any case to avoid mildew treated cuttings before laying a 5% solution of
ferrous sulfate (2-3-second immersion). From time to time check the
status of "suspended" chibouk, using the thaw. And at the end of the
storage media before planting in soil or immunization is carried out
selectively control sprouting eyes. To do this, cuttings from the
various beams are placed in water or wet sawdust. The result is visible
within a few days.
The final cycle of working
with cuttings - their preparation for planting (furrowing, soaked,
kilchevanie). First of all, taken out of the store refresh shank slices,
that is, remove the dried ends of the at least one internode. Then
discarded those in which the damaged kidney, browned wood.
In order to stimulate root
formation, furrow cortex and phloem of 1-2 lower internodes and nodes.
Furrows scratched by the teeth saws. Then, when the moisture content of
cuttings is reduced, they are soaked in water for several days, plunging
into the water on the Ouse length. This technique facilitates the
transition of nutrients accumulated in chibouk in soluble mobile
This also accelerates the
development of roots. Excellent results can bring, and preplant
kilchevanie cuttings. Here, they act simultaneously elevated
temperatures (the lower part, where the faster dissolve callus and roots
make their way), and lower, slows down the melting eyes. This procedure
is rather complex, requires specialized equipment, complicated
installations (greenhouses, hothouses, etc.). A more affordable option
for fans, suitable for small volume of cuttings is shown in Pict. 2.
Ripped open a hole for the
sun spot deep in length and diameter chibouk 25-30 cm bottom layer of
sand sprinkled on a set bunch of ready-to upper landing cuttings kidneys
down. Poured sand pit so that the layer between it and the edges of the
shank was at least 5 cm on top and add the steamed chips ground, covered
with glass frame. And to the surrounding soil pit to a depth of not
warmed by the sun, mulch meter strip of manure, straw or moss (layer
10-12 cm). Development located at the bottom of holes is inhibited by a
well-warmed upper part accelerates root formation.
Pict. 2. The simplest kilchevatel chibouk:
1 - "inverted" shanks, 2 - backfill with
sand, and 3 - insulated coating, 4 - a glazed frame, 5 - insulating
Known as the experience
kilchevaniye room, where resists heat bulbs with cold water or ice (Pict.
Other works associated
planting the cuttings in soil, are waxing the upper sections and
handling the bottom of the stimulants. The easiest and most affordable
stimulant, which appeared recently in the sale - the drug "Yuka."
Favorite type of grape can be
propagated vegetatively from a single - stacking cuttings, rooting
cuttings or vaccinations. In all these three options is used as a ripe, and green vines.
Pict. 3. The scheme of a room kilchevatel:
1 - a tank with cold water, 2 - Cooling bucket with tight lid, 3 - is
taking root cuttings, 4 - control thermometer, 5 - a covering cans (no
bed), 6 - low-power light bulbs, 7 - vent, 8 - dust mulch
Offshoot breeding most rapidly and reliably recreates the new vines.
Spend it as follows.
Choose the bottom of the hive cells of two powerful wild flight,
destined for extra bags, placed them in the autumn, before the shelter,
in both directions along the trellis in shallow grooves (25-30 cm).
On the way to the bushes being removed in the pit deepened to 0.5 m
(Fig. 4). To escape offshoot previously removed not fallen leaves, tendrils, and
stepsons, pit fill with humus, soil and vines are sprayed with a
solution nitrafen (2%). Align
ground, profusely sprinkled with layering.
The following spring sprouted shoots develop, which makes it possible to
rapidly form a pinched by first sleeve, and possibly fruit arrows.
This is facilitated, in particular, deliberate underutilization of crop
mother bush. Branch of the young growth from the "cancer" can be done in 2-3 years.
And the "umbilical cord" cut the middle to mutually strengthen their
Pict. 4. Options for laying cuttings
1 - the mother shrub, 2 - steady arm, 3 - horizontal rooting, 4 - the
Less deep (15 cm) horizontal cuttings of mature vines are used for
reproduction in spring-rooted seedlings. Pinned escape the rigors of land sprinkled fertilized, watered with warm
water and manganese, protect mulching roller. Line slips cover the entire film (before the appearance of lines of
seedlings emerged in the interstices). In the autumn, "the track" mint cuttings across the number of young
shoots obtained, each carefully selected with the root system and are
seated on the plantation. To penetrated by roots clod taken out painlessly, pre-pour in a
protective shell offshoot vines - old bucket without a bottom cut in
plastic bags of fertilizer (with holes), self-made cylinders of plywood
The second option - the green slips.
The technology is almost the same, but work should start with the 2nd
half of July, when the kicks for this purpose (not minted) shoots
reached the desired length and will begin their lignification.
Sometimes, in short increments, can be "landed" a vine with long
End of green cuttings, raised up, pinch out at 2-3 leaf to root better
vintage, but the underlying leaves carefully removed.
Appear at the top left stepchildren, the inflorescence and better break
off. Keep the cuttings under the control of
summer (irrigation, mulch, garter, anti-mildew).