Grapes planted in the spring,
but the soil is prepared in the fall. This is necessary, firstly, to
ensure that it has had time to settle before planting, thicken under the
influence of autumn-winter rainfall and frost. If the soil to prepare
the spring, she will not have time packed, it will be a lot of voids
between the larger clumps, which would hinder the growth of roots of
planted seedlings. Secondly, the land needs to be done necessarily in
loose, well heated and rather moist soil, such as its status can be
achieved only if it is prepared in the fall. Fall preplant provides a
strong root growth of the young Bush in the first year of planting, and
on this depends largely on the development of a good scrub in the coming
Once the ditches and pits
were dug, they again covered with earth in order that the land has
settled over the winter. The upper, more nutritious layer of soil dumped
on the bottom of the ditch.
In the lower layers of soil
is recommended to fertilize, it is best fresh The straw horse manure at
5-10 kg, or bird droppings on 1.5-2 kg, or compost - about 10 kg per 1
meter of the ditch. Not suitable for this purpose pig manure, and manure
is not acceptable (crumbling), as it always happen beetle larvae, which
can gnaw through underground stems of young shrubs.
Along with good manure to
granular superphosphate, preferably as soon as possible larger granules.
Superphosphate should be mixed with manure, but not strongly mix with
Watering can only plantation
ditches before them covered with earth. After that, prior to planting no
watering is not allowed: the land must sink slowly and gradually, as the
fall-out precipitation in autumn, winter and spring seasons. Only under
such conditions it becomes necessary uniform looseness and moderate
Start planting when the
ground is well warmed. Delay should not be, because every day reduces
the late growing period of young bush, that is the time from planting
until the autumn frosts.
When planting cuttings no
kilchevannye them after macerate must be carefully examined and sorted.
By planting the cuttings are suitable only those who have not been
damaged bark and well preserved left top 2 eye. Selected cuttings put
back into the bucket with water and carry to the site.
Kilchevannye cuttings and
carefully sorted. Selected for planting only those with intact upper two
buds and bark. Selected cuttings carefully wrapped in wet burlap and
bring to the area.
Cuttings planted in the
following way. Previously scheduled on the cord and the landing at these
places put pegs. The distance between the bushes must be at least 2 m,
and for varieties other than the strong growth - up to 3 m near each peg
makes a crowbar hole, insert the stem back and fill with water so that
the land around the cuttings settled. When the water is absorbed, the
remaining hole covered with earth and then the ground around the hole
tramp. Above the ground, leaving two buds, which are then spud earthy
mound height of 20 cm
When planting seedlings, as
own-rooted and grafted them in the spring after removal from storage
further sorted. First, discard those that are in appearance obviously
unsuitable: broken, stunted and inappropriate in size. Needed for
planting grafted seedlings 40-45 cm in length, own-rooted - 50 - 55 cm
Each seedling should have at least one escape, ripe for at least 10-15
cm, and a well-developed roots. If the seedling has several shoots,
which are selected from the best and the rest are removed. Left to shoot
pruned to 4-5 buds. The roots are left only to the lower unit and
trimmed to 15 - 20 cm during this crop plants continue to check their
quality. In seedlings suitable for planting, the shoots phloem in
sections should be bright green, emerald green, and white roots.
Prepared seedlings put on one
day in the water, and planting them in the day immersed in a bucket
filled with half-liquid clay on density reminiscent of sour cream. In
this bucket brings them to the site.
Seedlings are planted at a
distance of not less than 2 m from each other. On the plantation ditch,
prepared in the fall, on the cord is scheduled landing place with pegs.
On the one hand peg dug hole, whose depth should be slightly longer than
the seedlings. Seedling is removed from the bucket and placed near the
tee so that the fusion vaccine was place on 3-4 cm above ground level.
Hole in the Ouse covered with earth and good tramp. In this place fusion
vaccines (or the exit own-rooted seedlings escape) is lowered to ground
level or slightly higher. Then poured into a hole in one bucket of
water. When the water is absorbed, the hole finally fall asleep and make
a mound over the seedling of loose damp earth of about 15-20 cm trodden
ground around the mound loosen hoe.
Very good results are
obtained by planting own-rooted shrubs "up." This historic agrotechnical
used in Moldova for centuries and in small farms give good results,
providing a powerful, fast development of vines. At present, the
planting of vineyards in large areas with the use of machines this way
is unacceptable. But for the amateur wine, in particular to the wall and
bowline culture, it is certainly suitable. In the experiments, the
All-Union Scientific-Research Station anti-phylloxera bushes planted by
"up" very well developed, quickly reached the fruiting and its superior
power and fruitfulness shrubs, planted in other ways.
The method of planting "up"
is as follows. In autumn vines choose strong, well-ripened annual shoots
length of about 2 m. They are cut and stored in the basement in dig sand
until spring. Before planting vines twisted into a ring and soak in a
tub for 2-3 days. After that, all eyes is removed bottom, leaving the
upper end of the 3rd eye. For planting dig a pit at 70-75 cm and a
diameter of 80 cm on the bottom of the hole is placed lower end of the
vine, putting it in the form of a ring 1 or 2 times. The upper end of
its output to the surface. Then a hole to sleep up to half the earth,
and trample down abundantly watered. When the water is absorbed, a hole
to sleep, but on the on the surface of the upper end of the vines make a
Caring for young plantations
during the first year should be directed mainly to the fact that to
ensure good establishment of young bushes.
Prior to the release of young
shoots to the surface of mounds corrected if the land is crumbling from
the rain and wind, or for other reasons, and be sure to loosen the
surface of the mound every time on it after the rain form a crust. This
loosening of doing with his hands, being careful not to damage the young
shoots, which make their way to the surface. Must also ensure that the
underground part of the young shoots are not laid bare, and all the time
the land was closed, otherwise it may cause burns, from which all perish
Mounds can be smoothed out in
July by this time, the lower one is in the ground part of the shoot
turns brown and is not afraid of direct sunlight. Then remove all the
upper roots were formed in the grafted plant varieties in Europe, as
well as green shoots formed on the rootstock. If you do not, then move
to the understock their surface roots and fall off of the stock. The
upper roots should be removed and unvaccinated seedlings, as they delay
the development of deep roots.
The earth around the young
Bush should be kept moist for at least 80 cm deep. If only the top layer
of moist, but the underlying desiccated, the upper roots will grow well,
but deep - to develop poorly. However, for the life of vine deep roots
are of particular importance. Therefore, if the summer is dry, it is
necessary in June-August watered the bushes, so that the soil is
sufficiently moist. In winter, the young bushes hill land.