Growing grapes

Growig-grapes

Grape varieties and their characteristics

Table varieties of grapes

Technical varieties of grapes

The classification of grape varieties on the novelty

The choice of grape variety

Tab is vineyards

Biological characteristics of grapes

Inventory winegrower

Preparation for tab a vineyard

Planting of vines

The quality of seedlings grape

Formation and pruning vines

Guyot system

Wine glasshouse culture

Soil conditions and location

Planting grapes

Pruning and forming grapes

Pollination of grapes

Decimation grapes

Supplementary feeding and watering grapes

The harvest of grapes

Pests and diseases of grapes

The basic rules grafting grapes

Grafting of grapes eye or bud

Grafting of grapes in a split green shoots

Grafting of grapes to split trunk

Using last year's grape cuttings

Grafting of grapes green on green

The method of budding grapes

Kilchevanie of grapes

Care of grafted grape plants

Reproduction of the grape

Wintering grapes

Derivation of frost varieties of grapes

The use of grapes for landscaping

Planting grapes at the walls and arbors

Formation and pruning vines for greenery

Care of vineyards

Artificial pollination of grapes

Fertilizers for grapes

Recovering the vines from frost damage

Elimination of thinning grapes

Pruning of vine

Green operations in the Vineyard

Improving the quality of grapes

Methods of protection of grapes

Pests of grapevine

Diseases of the vine

Weed plants

Protection of vineyards from disease

Definition of diseases of grapes on the external signs of injury

Protecting grapes from pests and diseases

Characteristics of herbicides permitted for use

Precautions when working with pesticides

Collection and processing of grapes

Collection and storage of grapes

Grapes in cooking

Making a home of grape wine

Dry wines

Dessert wines

Manufacturing technology of sweet dessert of grape wine

The composition of grape wine

Diseases of the wine

Classification of wines

Table wines

Local wines

Quality wines

Wine tasting

Making wine from fruit and berries

Storage of wine

Culture of wine drinking

Culture of wine consumption


Literature
Site map

Planting of vines

Grapes planted in the spring, but the soil is prepared in the fall. This is necessary, firstly, to ensure that it has had time to settle before planting, thicken under the influence of autumn-winter rainfall and frost. If the soil to prepare the spring, she will not have time packed, it will be a lot of voids between the larger clumps, which would hinder the growth of roots of planted seedlings. Secondly, the land needs to be done necessarily in loose, well heated and rather moist soil, such as its status can be achieved only if it is prepared in the fall. Fall preplant provides a strong root growth of the young Bush in the first year of planting, and on this depends largely on the development of a good scrub in the coming years.

Once the ditches and pits were dug, they again covered with earth in order that the land has settled over the winter. The upper, more nutritious layer of soil dumped on the bottom of the ditch.

In the lower layers of soil is recommended to fertilize, it is best fresh The straw horse manure at 5-10 kg, or bird droppings on 1.5-2 kg, or compost - about 10 kg per 1 meter of the ditch. Not suitable for this purpose pig manure, and manure is not acceptable (crumbling), as it always happen beetle larvae, which can gnaw through underground stems of young shrubs.

Along with good manure to granular superphosphate, preferably as soon as possible larger granules. Superphosphate should be mixed with manure, but not strongly mix with the ground.

Watering can only plantation ditches before them covered with earth. After that, prior to planting no watering is not allowed: the land must sink slowly and gradually, as the fall-out precipitation in autumn, winter and spring seasons. Only under such conditions it becomes necessary uniform looseness and moderate humidity.

Start planting when the ground is well warmed. Delay should not be, because every day reduces the late growing period of young bush, that is the time from planting until the autumn frosts.

When planting cuttings no kilchevannye them after macerate must be carefully examined and sorted. By planting the cuttings are suitable only those who have not been damaged bark and well preserved left top 2 eye. Selected cuttings put back into the bucket with water and carry to the site.

Kilchevannye cuttings and carefully sorted. Selected for planting only those with intact upper two buds and bark. Selected cuttings carefully wrapped in wet burlap and bring to the area.

Cuttings planted in the following way. Previously scheduled on the cord and the landing at these places put pegs. The distance between the bushes must be at least 2 m, and for varieties other than the strong growth - up to 3 m near each peg makes a crowbar hole, insert the stem back and fill with water so that the land around the cuttings settled. When the water is absorbed, the remaining hole covered with earth and then the ground around the hole tramp. Above the ground, leaving two buds, which are then spud earthy mound height of 20 cm

When planting seedlings, as own-rooted and grafted them in the spring after removal from storage further sorted. First, discard those that are in appearance obviously unsuitable: broken, stunted and inappropriate in size. Needed for planting grafted seedlings 40-45 cm in length, own-rooted - 50 - 55 cm Each seedling should have at least one escape, ripe for at least 10-15 cm, and a well-developed roots. If the seedling has several shoots, which are selected from the best and the rest are removed. Left to shoot pruned to 4-5 buds. The roots are left only to the lower unit and trimmed to 15 - 20 cm during this crop plants continue to check their quality. In seedlings suitable for planting, the shoots phloem in sections should be bright green, emerald green, and white roots.

Prepared seedlings put on one day in the water, and planting them in the day immersed in a bucket filled with half-liquid clay on density reminiscent of sour cream. In this bucket brings them to the site.

Seedlings are planted at a distance of not less than 2 m from each other. On the plantation ditch, prepared in the fall, on the cord is scheduled landing place with pegs. On the one hand peg dug hole, whose depth should be slightly longer than the seedlings. Seedling is removed from the bucket and placed near the tee so that the fusion vaccine was place on 3-4 cm above ground level. Hole in the Ouse covered with earth and good tramp. In this place fusion vaccines (or the exit own-rooted seedlings escape) is lowered to ground level or slightly higher. Then poured into a hole in one bucket of water. When the water is absorbed, the hole finally fall asleep and make a mound over the seedling of loose damp earth of about 15-20 cm trodden ground around the mound loosen hoe.

Very good results are obtained by planting own-rooted shrubs "up." This historic agrotechnical used in Moldova for centuries and in small farms give good results, providing a powerful, fast development of vines. At present, the planting of vineyards in large areas with the use of machines this way is unacceptable. But for the amateur wine, in particular to the wall and bowline culture, it is certainly suitable. In the experiments, the All-Union Scientific-Research Station anti-phylloxera bushes planted by "up" very well developed, quickly reached the fruiting and its superior power and fruitfulness shrubs, planted in other ways.

The method of planting "up" is as follows. In autumn vines choose strong, well-ripened annual shoots length of about 2 m. They are cut and stored in the basement in dig sand until spring. Before planting vines twisted into a ring and soak in a tub for 2-3 days. After that, all eyes is removed bottom, leaving the upper end of the 3rd eye. For planting dig a pit at 70-75 cm and a diameter of 80 cm on the bottom of the hole is placed lower end of the vine, putting it in the form of a ring 1 or 2 times. The upper end of its output to the surface. Then a hole to sleep up to half the earth, and trample down abundantly watered. When the water is absorbed, a hole to sleep, but on the on the surface of the upper end of the vines make a mound.

Caring for young plantations during the first year should be directed mainly to the fact that to ensure good establishment of young bushes.

Prior to the release of young shoots to the surface of mounds corrected if the land is crumbling from the rain and wind, or for other reasons, and be sure to loosen the surface of the mound every time on it after the rain form a crust. This loosening of doing with his hands, being careful not to damage the young shoots, which make their way to the surface. Must also ensure that the underground part of the young shoots are not laid bare, and all the time the land was closed, otherwise it may cause burns, from which all perish escape.

Mounds can be smoothed out in July by this time, the lower one is in the ground part of the shoot turns brown and is not afraid of direct sunlight. Then remove all the upper roots were formed in the grafted plant varieties in Europe, as well as green shoots formed on the rootstock. If you do not, then move to the understock their surface roots and fall off of the stock. The upper roots should be removed and unvaccinated seedlings, as they delay the development of deep roots.

The earth around the young Bush should be kept moist for at least 80 cm deep. If only the top layer of moist, but the underlying desiccated, the upper roots will grow well, but deep - to develop poorly. However, for the life of vine deep roots are of particular importance. Therefore, if the summer is dry, it is necessary in June-August watered the bushes, so that the soil is sufficiently moist. In winter, the young bushes hill land.



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