Growing grapes

 

 

 

Grape varieties and their characteristics

Table varieties of grapes

Technical varieties of grapes

The classification of grape varieties on the novelty

The choice of grape variety

 

Tab is vineyards

Biological characteristics of grapes

Inventory winegrower

Preparation for tab a vineyard

Planting of vines

The quality of seedlings grape

Formation and pruning vines

Guyot system

 

Wine glasshouse culture

Soil conditions and location

Planting grapes

Pruning and forming grapes

Pollination of grapes

Decimation grapes

Supplementary feeding and watering grapes

The harvest of grapes

Pests and diseases of grapes

 

The basic rules grafting grapes

Grafting of grapes eye or bud

Grafting of grapes in a split green shoots

Grafting of grapes to split trunk

Using last year's grape cuttings

Grafting of grapes "green on green'

The method of budding grapes

Kilchevanie of grapes

Care of grafted grape plants

Reproduction of the grape

Wintering grapes

Derivation of frost varieties of grapes

 

The use of grapes for landscaping

Planting grapes at the walls and arbors

Formation and pruning vines for greenery

 

Care of vineyards

Artificial pollination of grapes

Fertilizers for grapes

Recovering the vines from frost damage

Elimination of thinning grapes

Pruning of vine

Green operations in the Vineyard

Improving the quality of grapes

 

Methods of protection of grapes

Pests of grapevine

Diseases of the vine

Weed plants

Protection of vineyards from disease

Definition of diseases of grapes on the external signs of injury

Protecting grapes from pests and diseases

Characteristics of herbicides permitted for use

Precautions when working with pesticides

 

Collection and processing of grapes

Collection and storage of grapes

Grapes in cooking

 

Making a home of grape wine

Dry wines

Dessert wines

Manufacturing technology of sweet dessert of grape wine

The composition of grape wine

Diseases of the wine

Classification of wines

Table wines

Local wines

Quality wines

Wine tasting

Making wine from fruit and berries

Storage of wine

 

Culture of wine drinking

Culture of wine consumption

 

Pests of grapevine

The species composition of vine pests in different areas of viticulture is different, but everywhere the greatest harm inflicted phylloxera, bunch and perennial leaf, pestryanka, marble Khrushchev, and the grape mealybug Skosarev. Phylloxera and pestryanka live and reproduce only on the vine, some species (Tortrix bunch) went on a vine with other cultures, but it is so adapted to the vineyards that are now on other plants and do not occur. The remaining pests are mostly polyphagous. Thus, the marble Khrushchev, Turkish and Crimean Skosarev, grape mealybug, except grapes, damage, and several other crops.

 

Crimean Skosarev (Pict. 1). It hurts a vine. Beetles and larvae overwinter in the soil. The beetles appear in spring at 10-11 C.

Crimean Skosarev

Pict. 1. Crimean Skosarev:

a - the larva, b - beetle

Females live 4 years and every year, lay in the soil for a total of about 1,000 eggs. The beetles feed on buds and leaves, and larvae are found fertile ground in roots. In the summer the larvae go into the deeper soil layers (up to 30 cm). Oviposition lasts 2-3 months, one female lays in moist soil layers from 300 to 2000 eggs. Eggs develop within 10-12 days. The larvae live in soil and feed on the roots of the vine, winter and spring, pupate in dense earthy cradles.

Control measures. Sprinkle with 3% m barium chloride with the appearance of beetles in the spring. Adhesive pad rings in the spring. After bud break processing is repeated. Also recommend to use bait, poisoned with a solution of permitted pesticides.

 

Marble beetle (Pict. 2). Fairly large beetle, body length is 40 mm. Elytra covered with numerous white spots of irregular shape, which

Marble beetle:

Pict. 2. Marble beetle:

a - beetles, b - pupa, c - the larvae before pupation in caves, d - larva which gnaws his pipe vine

gives a general impression of the marble pattern. The abdomen is covered with dense gray hairs. It prefers sandy soil, and therefore distributed mainly in vineyards located on these soils. It hurts a vine and fruit trees. Development of one generation hippocastani stretches up to 4 years. Overwinter larvae. In late October, when the soil temperature drops to 10 C, the larvae begin to move into the deeper layers to a depth of 50-75 cm, and some reach a depth of 1 m.

After wintering in the spring, in late March - early April, the larvae rise to the surface of land and with sufficient soil moisture are kept at a depth of 10-30 cm vertical movement of larvae (from lower to upper and vice versa) is sometimes observed in the summer, which is caused by desiccation or topsoil (if they move down), or, conversely, show groundwater (in such cases, they rise almost to the ground surface). Larval development lasts 3-4 years, after which the larvae reach the adult stage. Adult larvae are yellowish with numerous transverse folds and with a thickened posterior end of body. The head is brown. In late May - early June they pupate in the soil at a depth of 10-20 cm pupa 20-30 days (depending on soil temperature). Departure beetles starts in the 2nd half of June and lasts until mid-July. Of beetles usually occurs at night, the day they hide in the sand or under leaves.

They feed, gnawing the flowers and leaves of herbaceous and woody plants. Shortly after leaving the beetles mate and females lay eggs in the soil to a depth of 10-15 cm in groups, about 30-40 pieces each. The eggs are white, oblong, to 3.5 mm in diameter and 5 mm in length. Development of eggs lasts 15-20 days. After the specified time of the eggs hatch the larvae are small grayish, which in the first year of life are fed crop residues and shallow roots, without causing significant damage to plants of grapes. From the 2nd year of life, the larvae cause significant damage already, gnawing cuttings in vineyard and gnawing the roots are thick on the young crop.

Control measures. Areas previously examined for infection of Khrushchev. If you have a average of 1-2 larvae per 1 m2 of the soil insecticide seed carried on vineyards and grape plantations. The year before planting vines produced fumigation polychlorides (30 g/m2) in the grid 35 x 35 cm and a depth of 20 cm The best time for seeding - August - early September, subject to bookmarks vineyard cuttings in the spring of next year. A positive value in the fight against larvae and pupae hippocastani is plowing, in which the larvae and pupae are killed and evert (peck birds are dried by the sun, wind).

 

Bunch Tortrix (Pict. 3). A small butterfly, wing span up to 11-13 mm. Fore wings brown with a pattern consisting of transverse light bands with yellow and metallic-blue spots. Distributed in the Crimea.

In most areas of its distribution Bunch Tortrix develops in three generations. Pupae overwinter in bark cracks and props. Moth in the spring starts in April or early May. 10-12 days after emergence, each butterfly lays 100 eggs. On the fecundity of butterflies have a great influence humidity and air temperature. The most favorable conditions: humidity 50%, and temperatures of 15-30 C and the presence of dew.

Butterfly 1st generation lay their eggs mainly on the buds, and subsequent generations of butterflies - on berries. The most severe infection occurs in the middle of the bush and on the more dense racemes. Hatched larvae of the first generation damage the buds and ovaries, and criss-crossing their nibbles spiderweb in the form of cover, which is used to track protection. One larva destroys up to 40-60 buds and ovaries. Larvae of subsequent (2nd and 3rd) generations nibbles berries, damaging up to 9.5 berries each. During the rainy season damaged berries rot quickly, and in dry weather, some of them dry out.

Brunch Tortrix

Pict. 3. Bunch Tortrix:

a - Butterfly; b - eggs in the berry; c - caterpillar (in large size), d - pupa, e - winter cocoons with a doll

Caterpillars of 1st generation pupate usually between damaged buds, 2nd - between dry berries in their hands, third - usually one peeled the bark and in the backwater. Of different grape varieties bunch iortrix the most severely injured Riesling Semilon; in medium - Cabernet, Chasselas, Rkatsiteli, Saperavi; to weakly exposed varieties include red muscat, Schvane, Mattress.

Control measures. To clarify the terms of the fight put up in the vineyards of trap for the registration of summer butterflies use 50-60% of th bekmes diluted 6-7 times water. You can take the place of bekmes wine and sugar. On wine varieties in all three generations produce dusting meritol, kupfermerptol or other approved insecticides, dusting anabasine sulfate-and nicotine-sulphate (0.3%). In the fight against brunch tortrix can use biological control of eggs of the leaf infect Trichogramma egg parasites. Trichogramma derived from biological laboratories should produce 2 times against each generation eggs at intervals of 5-7 days.

 

Biennial Tortrix (Pict. 4). It hurts a vine. Pupae overwinter in the trunk, a lagging bark. Caterpillars of 1st generation feed on buds, buds and young ovaries, the larvae of the 2nd generation - green and ripening berries, caterpillars and third generation, emerging only in Central Asia, eating ripe berries. The lower threshold of development of pupae - 9 C, the sum of effective temperatures of - 175 C. Egg-laying begins 7-10 days after departure butterfly at 14-15 C and after 5-7 days at 19-25 C. The lower threshold of development of eggs - 1 C, embryonic development at 15 C lasts 13 days at 19 C - 7 days. Caterpillar is developing at an average daily temperature of 19 C for 20 C days.

Biennial Tortrix

Pict. 4. Biennial Tortrix:

a - caterpillar, b - a doll; c - Butterfly

To predict the occurrence of larvae of each generation are temperature data and taking into account the summer butterflies bekmes trap. Moth in the spring is determined by the lower limit of the pupa and the sum of effective temperatures. Then determined by timing of hatching caterpillars 1st generation: the average daily temperature of 14-15 C in 18-20 days, 18-20 C - 12-14 days. These data should be updated each time by direct observation of nature.

Control measures. In the mass flight of butterflies and caterpillars hatching conduct insecticide treatments (tokution, cim-bush sumitsidin, ekamet, tsidial, fozalon, Sevigny, parathion, flufenoksuron, etc.). The most preferred treatment of biological agents, such as batsillusom-tu-rindzhensisom - selective biological insecticide, thus avoiding the use of unsafe chemical insecticides.

Generally, treatment is necessary only against the second-generation leafrollers. Preventive measures in the winter do not provide sufficient results. The treatment of vineyards up to 30 days before harvest.

 

Grape pestryanka (Pict. 5). Distributed in the Crimea, the Caucasus, in Georgia, Dagestan, and Moldova. Lives and feeds only on the vine. The size of the butterfly wing span - up to 24-27 mm, has a characteristic bluish or blue-green wings. Caterpillars overwinter third age under peeled bark grapevine stakes in the cracks in the stumps left after cutting the vines, and plant debris. In the spring, during bud swelling vine (at about 11-12 C), the larvae crawl out of wintering sites. Initially, they eat away the kidneys and eventually gnaw leaves. With strong damage to the kidneys leaves are not developed. Caterpillars of 1st generation pupate under the bark, or a backwater in the soil.

Grape pestryanka

Pict. 5. Grape pestryanka:

a - caterpillar, b - butterfly

Flying butterflies in June 1st generation lay eggs in groups on leaves, up to 300-600 eggs each. After 7-10 days the caterpillars hatch from eggs, which also feed on leaves of the vine. In what part of the caterpillars pupate and give butterflies 2nd generation, and some larvae of the 1st generation is still winter, damaging the vine. Low winter temperatures do not cause the death of the caterpillars, they spend the winter in diapause, and transferred cold to -35 C. The following spring the caterpillars come out of sleep phase at a temperature of 11 C and feed on leaves and buds. Development and mass reproduction are entirely dependent on air humidity. Embryonic development occurs at a humidity of 20% and above. In the caterpillar enters diapause at a moisture content below 50%. Butterflies have evolved from the pupae do not feed on and immediately after mating and laying eggs to start.

Control measures. Dusting meritol vineyards. Adhesive pad rings at the base of young shoots in spring at 10 C in the period before bud break from farming practices have positive treatment of the cortex, the replacement of wooden props and wire cleaning plant residues.

 

Phylloxera (Pict. 6). It hurts a vine, as for her one of the most dangerous pests. European and Asian varieties of grapes die from injuries inflicted by their roots with phylloxera, after 4-20 years, depending on variety and growing conditions.

Galls with leaf form of phylloxera appear on the leaves only American varieties. Galls on the root form are also found in European-American hybrid varieties..

Phylloxera

Pict. 6. Phylloxera

The root form is from 5 to 7 generations, leaf shape (Fig. 7, 8) - up to 15 generations. Overwinters and develops almost the entire depth of the root system of vine. Awakening occurs at 13 C, the final departure for the winter - at 8 C. The larvae ("tramp") out of the soil at a temperature of 20-35 C and high humidity, and wander through the soil surface. They can be spread by irrigation water and rain, the wind instruments in the processing and shoe workers. Nymphs, giving the winged form, which are obtained from genital specimens and resting eggs appear at soil temperatures above 20 C and usually at a depth of 70-100 cm

Control measures. Quarantine. Disinsection hot water first chibouks immersed for 5 minutes in water heated to 40 C, followed by 7 minutes - heated to 52 C. Periodically inspect the vineyards through excavation and inspection of the root system. If you find the phylloxera in the small and new outbreaks of soil fumigation with a mixture of carbon disulfide and polychlorides (300-400 sm3/m2).

Sheet form of phylloxera

Pict. 7. Sheet form of phylloxera:

a - an adult female, b - in the context of the gall

 

Stages of development of leaf phylloxera

Pict. 8. Stages of development of leaf phylloxera:

a - the egg, b - larva, and in - the adult insect, d - a nymph, and e - winged phylloxera, e - swellings on the roots by phylloxera damage

At this dose killed and phylloxera and vines. The size of the protective zone should be at least 10 m from infected bushes in all directions. At the site of destroyed hearth landing is allowed no earlier than 7 years old and own-rooted vines only.

If the dose of carbon disulfide was reduced to 70-90 sm3/m2, then if all the precautions shrubs are not damaged, and the pests for a long time cease to exist, so that the infected vines can be used for many years. Conduct of various measures dictated by the specific terms and the decision is made by competent persons.

As you know, there is currently no effective method of fighting, which would not be dying plant!

In all the queen cells and vineyard should be used for fumigation of soil in order to destroy the phylloxera. All plots vineyard and queen cells must also be pre-decontaminated. The liquor must be carried out fumigation of the soil in late June or early July, i.e. to increase the soil temperature at a depth of 15-20 cm and 20 C. Passivation prevents the nymphs, and consequently there will be no winter eggs.

 

Grape mealybug (Pict. 9). The females are dark brown with a dark line along the back. On each side of the body are 4.3 thick short bristles. The body shape is oval. Setae on the last segment two. The entire body is covered with a white powdery bloom.

Damages vine growing on many weeds. Larva overwinters under the bark of the trunk of props and around the root collar of the soil to a depth of 5-6 cm in spring larvae wake up at 15 C, feeding first on the trunk and perennial shoots in June, moving to the green parts of the bush and cause drying of leaves and brushes. Has 3-4 generation per year. In the winter killed almost at -16 C. Mass reproduction is observed at 20-25 C, humidity 45 - 75% and congestion on the crests of brushes. Under these conditions, there is mass production of eggs (300-500).

Control measures. Grape mealybug - a quarantine pest, so the combat is very important control over the transportation of planting material, decontamination to fumigants. If you find scale insects in summer is used for fumigation tent - a tent covered with a trellis on 05/04 bushes. Exposure - 40 - 50 min. In the early fall of the leaves and branches on stem impose trapping rings of packing chips, matting, etc. - they are willing to climb on the scale insects overwinter. With the onset of cold weather of the ring is removed and burned.

For the destruction of scale insects hibernating in winter or early spring clean old dead bark of trunks and branches, followed by copious sprinkling authorized agents.

In summer, against the young larvae of scale insects apply insecticide or dusting allowed

Grape mealybug

Pict. 9. Grape mealybug

spraying with 0.1% D emulsion thiophos or 0.2% solution of anabasine sulfate with the addition of soap. Dates of spraying should be held back by the beginning of the mass appearance of larvae of each generation. Mealybug also destroyed by the predatory beetle - Cryptolaemus.

 

Grape rust mite. It hurts mostly European vine and does not damage the American phylloxera-stable rootstock grade. Females overwinter under bud scales and under exfoliated bark. Emerge from overwintering sites and settle on the underside of leaves with the beginning of bud burst. The female lays about 50 eggs in feeding places, hairs between the Gauls. Mite develops in 5-9 generations. As a result of sucking the contents of a tick sheet of tissue cells to grow abnormally lower side in the form of very thin strands, forming a thick felt, at first whitish hairs, later taking a reddish-brown color. On the upper side of leaf blistering - galls. When the galls begin to grow old, mites leave them and move to a new, undamaged place or a new worksheet.

Control measures. Spraying against overwintering females to bud at a temperature below 4 C with a solution of DNOC (0.1-0.2 kg per sq.m.) or emulsion products number 30, 30A, 30C, 30SS, 30M (0,12-0,37 l to weave). Spraying in the growing season emulsions of 25% of antio (0,012-0,04 liters per one hundred square meters), 57% of omayt (0,012-0,018 liters per one hundred square meters), 35% of zolon (0,01-0,028 l / ha) 40% of fosfamid (0,012-0,03 l / ha), 50% of tsidial (2-4 l / ha), 27% of akartan (2-3 l / ha), a suspension of 30% of zolona (1,3-3,3 kg / ha) as well as other drugs permitted for use in home gardens.

 

Grape leaf roller. Caterpillars damage the kidneys were swollen, twisted and eat the young leaves. Often damage the buds and ovary grapes. Moths of medium size, front wings light yellow with three light brown stripes, the second pair of wings gray. Caterpillar dirty-gray or greenish with two pairs of light tubercles with bristles at the ends. In the year provides a single generation. Caterpillar overwinters the first age, hiding under the bark, or cracks in the soil columns. Wakes up in the phase of the swelling buds, feeding, they pupate in June, and after 8-12 days of flying butterfly pupae, which in late June, lays up to 400 eggs on the underside of leaves. After 10-12 days the eggs out of caterpillars.

Control measures are the same as that against perennial leaf.

 

Corn beetle. Beetle black, body length 24-25 mm. This species is widely distributed in all areas of cultivation of grapes and particularly on the fertile well-watered soils. Like the larvae of the marbled Khrushchev beetle larvae damage corn stalks of grapes planted in vineyard and young plantings of grapes.

Of beetles observed in April, evening and night. Mating and laying female beetles the testes occurs in July and August. The larvae develop in the soil for 2 years. Adult larvae pupate in the 2nd half of the summer in the soil, earthy cradles to a depth of 15 cm from the soil surface, where they soon turn into beetles, which remain to winter in the soil.

Control measures are the same as with other types of cockchafers.

 

Common spider mite (Pict. 10). Mites in length about 0.5 mm, painted, depending on the species belonging to the color from yellow to dark red.

Common spider mite

Pict. 10. Common spider mite

Larvae are initially six, later eight feet. On the underside of grape leaves, their permanent location, they weave a more or less dense cover. Every year there is a few generations (4-7), on which are influenced by temperature conditions. Under favorable conditions, can be dangerous mass invasion of spider mites. Later generations overlap, so that all stages of development occur simultaneously.

Control measures. Before the buds spend processing the vineyard or nitrafen DNOC. To combat spider mites after the start of spring growth is used acaricidal drugs based on different active ingredients (rogor, fozalon, akreks, keltan, neoron, pliktran, etc.). If you use drugs with short-lived after the deployment of spraying must be repeated kidney 10-12 days to kill and also later appeared before the ticks lay their eggs summer. As a preventative measure: removal of the bushes at pruning and burning silnozarazhennoy cortex. Natural enemies - predatory mites of the genus Typhlodromus, beetles, ladybugs Scummus, punctillium W. and their larvae, as well as some predatory flower bugs. However, they can not quickly enough to stop the mass appearance of spider mites, to prevent serious damage.

 

Grape tick (Pict. 11). The body is yellowish-green; dimensions of 0.6 mm female, male - 0.4 mm. Fertilized female overwinters under the bark of wood, fallen leaves on the weeds. When the first leaves settled on the green parts of the vine, and at a temperature exceeding 13 C begins to lay eggs on the underside of the leaf.

Grape tick

Pict. 11. Grape tick

A female lays 70-150 eggs. After 5-6 days the larva hatches that turns then into a nymph. The duration of the generation of 15-20 days during the summer growing from 8-9 to 10-12 generations. The mite lives on the underside of leaves. Pointed upper jaw mite punctures the leaf tissue and absorbs the contents. In areas of damage appear small bright spots, later turning brown and drying.

Control measures. Removal from the bushes at pruning and burning heavily insestid cortex, processing of the vineyard before bud DNOC (20 kg / ha) or nitrafen (30 kg / ha). When the mites on the leaves must be processed vineyards acaricides (rogor, fozalon, akreks, keltan) at a concentration of 0.2-0.3% solutions. Also recommend the use of sulfur products.

 

Wasps in the vineyard. The colony of wasps begins in the spring with a single overwintered fertilized the uterus. The uterus becomes active with the onset of spring warmth and begins to build a little nest in which to lay eggs after 30 days there are 4-7 working wasps. The colony reaches its maximum height for the height of summer, before this period, wasps eat and feed their young mainly protein food - caterpillars, carrion, etc., then there are beneficial insects. By late summer, growth slows and wasp colonies moving to sweet foods, becoming a pest.

Wasps feed on the vines and ripening grapes are sometimes present in such large numbers that seriously harm the crop. Unlike bees, wasps may gnaw through the thin skin of berries. Because they do not consume all the sweet juice, he "gets" fungi, bacteria, flies or bees, wasps that follow. With the manual vintage bites wasps, in addition, may bring trouble collectors.

Control measures. Fighting wasps as pests of grapes is a difficult task, since there is no approved insecticides to control them in the vineyard with the approach of harvest time the grapes.

The destruction of the colonies in nests remains one of the main methods of struggle. In the morning when wasps emerge from the nest en masse, or in the evening, when flying back, we can determine the location of nests. There are several insecticides on which there is marked "against the wasps' other insecticides against flying insects may also be effective. The best time of destruction - after dark, when the workers are wasps in the nest. Necessary to take precautions against possible bites a: to put on protective clothing, gloves, goggles or a protective grid, check that there are no open areas of the body. The edges of the garment should be tied up so that the wasps could not crawl under clothing. Use red flashlight or red cellophane cover it - wasps do not see red light. Spray or spray insecticide into the nest.

Traps. Trapping females in traps and destruction of nests in the spring also severely limits the population of wasps, as the destruction of one of the uterus - is destroying the future of the colony. But in some regions, this method is not very efficient due to the subsequent arrival of migrants, colonizing the liberated territory. A more recent use of traps may help reduce damage to grapes, but their use should be started early and should continue until the end of the harvest. The traps will not eliminate all the wasps in the area, but will help reduce the problem.

Trap for wasps and very easy to make, given the seasonal taste preferences of wasps. Trap with bait protein (meat, fish) is suitable for spring and early summer. Take the usual empty 1.5-2-liter plastic bottle (for convenience - better wide), cut off her upper cone. In the lower part (but not at the bottom) with an awl make a few holes to trap in the air does not stagnate, and the top - two holes for the wires, for which we will hang the trap. Fasten the wire. In the middle of the bottom hook fasten some plastic cylinder (suitable container from the film). Lock cylinder can, for example, slightly melted his bottom on a gas cooker and sink quickly crushing the bottle. At the bottom of the trap (but not in the cylinder), pour a solution of soapy water, so that its level of 3-4 cm did not get to the top of the cylinder. The tricks take any piece of fresh meat, fish, liver, which is put into the cylinder in the middle of the trap. Cut above the top of the bottle is inserted upside down. All trap for wasps ready! It remains only to suspend it, or install near your vineyard, so that when the wind is not much rocked. The wasp flies through the funnel into the trap of taking a piece of production during takeoff and falls into the water. Of course, with this trap can be dealt with wasps, not only in the vineyard. Do not forget to change the bait in the traps - rotting meat attracts wasps are not as well as remove the trapped wasps.

Since mid-summer, when the wasps start to pull on the sweet (depending on the climate - the middle of July, August), working with the traps is simplified. As the traps then you can use regular small plastic or glass bottles. They pour scented sweet products: juice, diluted juice (can be sour), water with honey, molasses, beer - there is always something suitable. Traps hanging next to the vineyard, and periodically change the fluid - when it is full of wasps, it loses its effectiveness. In both cases, you can do without food bait using a variety of substances that attract wasps (attractants), such as heptyl butyrate, isobutanol, 2-methyl-2-propanol, but they are difficult to find and often they attract only certain types of wasps.

The grid. In some vineyards with the beginning of the period of ripening completely covered with rows of bushes, fine-mesh grid, which also serves as the protection of birds. A small number of bunches of grapes can be worn blankets, made, for example, of nylon tights. Cases should be free enough to not compress bunch. Remove the leaves around the grapes, they will be better ventilated, which reduces the risk of rotting fruit.

Biological control. Quite effective biological control of wasps are absent. Parasites, predators and pathogens do not have much impact on the population dynamics of the wasps. Biotic agents are effective only in weakened colonies. Neoplektanid nematode is a possible biological agent to combat, but the spread of this parasite requires a 100% relative humidity, a condition practically does not occur in colonies of wasps. Several varieties can harm certain parasitic flies. Although many different animals to hunt on the wasps (birds, reptiles, amphibians, skunks, bears, raccoons, spiders, praying mantises, wasps spotted), but none of them provides a satisfactory biological control in home vineyards.

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Growing grapes