Growing grapes

 

 

 

Grape varieties and their characteristics

Table varieties of grapes

Technical varieties of grapes

The classification of grape varieties on the novelty

The choice of grape variety

 

Tab is vineyards

Biological characteristics of grapes

Inventory winegrower

Preparation for tab a vineyard

Planting of vines

The quality of seedlings grape

Formation and pruning vines

Guyot system

 

Wine glasshouse culture

Soil conditions and location

Planting grapes

Pruning and forming grapes

Pollination of grapes

Decimation grapes

Supplementary feeding and watering grapes

The harvest of grapes

Pests and diseases of grapes

 

The basic rules grafting grapes

Grafting of grapes eye or bud

Grafting of grapes in a split green shoots

Grafting of grapes to split trunk

Using last year's grape cuttings

Grafting of grapes "green on green'

The method of budding grapes

Kilchevanie of grapes

Care of grafted grape plants

Reproduction of the grape

Wintering grapes

Derivation of frost varieties of grapes

 

The use of grapes for landscaping

Planting grapes at the walls and arbors

Formation and pruning vines for greenery

 

Care of vineyards

Artificial pollination of grapes

Fertilizers for grapes

Recovering the vines from frost damage

Elimination of thinning grapes

Pruning of vine

Green operations in the Vineyard

Improving the quality of grapes

 

Methods of protection of grapes

Pests of grapevine

Diseases of the vine

Weed plants

Protection of vineyards from disease

Definition of diseases of grapes on the external signs of injury

Protecting grapes from pests and diseases

Characteristics of herbicides permitted for use

Precautions when working with pesticides

 

Collection and processing of grapes

Collection and storage of grapes

Grapes in cooking

 

Making a home of grape wine

Dry wines

Dessert wines

Manufacturing technology of sweet dessert of grape wine

The composition of grape wine

Diseases of the wine

Classification of wines

Table wines

Local wines

Quality wines

Wine tasting

Making wine from fruit and berries

Storage of wine

 

Culture of wine drinking

Culture of wine consumption

 

Making wine from fruit and berries

Apricot wine

Apricots - 2.5 kg of sugar, 3 kg, water - 9 l. Peeled from the pits of ripe apricots soak in warm boiled water. On the 5th day squeeze the pulp, add the sugar and leave for fermentation. 2-3 times a day stir stick. When fermentation is finished, should be 2-3 times sift through the filter paper. Then wine left in the glass container for maturation. In the end result tasty, fragrant wine, which, if desired, you can refine. The easy method of refining of wine, pour in the wine protein one egg or diluted in warm water soluble fish glue and stick with a mix of the wine. These resin materials contribute to the sedimentation of soot on the bottom of the bottles or karas. Separated from the soot of the wine should be poured into another capacity.

 

Orange wine

Orange juice - 1 liter, sugar, 400 g. Select ripe, peeled, cut wide slices and wring out under a press. In the squeezed juice, add sugar. Leave the time to ferment. Wine produced from the mass, will be yellow colour and a beautiful orange taste.

 

Wine from aronia (black chokeberry)

1-st method. The fruit is separated from the helve, wash, chop. Pulp is left for fermentation for 2-3 days in a temperature of 18-20 C, press. Marc filled with water (250-300 ml per 1 kg of bagasse) and squeeze in 2 days. Juices mixed, add the sugar from the calculation of 1,5 kg per 10 l of juice, put on a fermentation, two weeks later, on the end of the rapid fermentation, add sugar for the second time (1.5 kg in 10 l juice), put on a fermentation under the water gate (or a plastic bag) for 2-3 weeks. Remove the wine of the sediment, add 1.5 kg of sugar per 10 l wine and stand for 1 month. Then filtered, is poured into bottles and clog. Keep the wine in a cool place, with time its taste improves.

2-nd method. On 5 kg of crushed berries without branches take for table wine 5 litres of water and 1.5 kg of sugar, for dessert wine - 0,9 l of water and 2.5 kg of sugar, for liqueur wine - 3,3 kg of sugar, enter the yeast yeast, put on fermentation and further on this technology is described prepare wine. To increase the acidity of the wort add the red currants.

 

Wine from cherry pulp

Cherry-squash - 5 kg, sugar syrup - 4 l (1.6 kg of sugar in 3 l of water). Cherry pulp put in a 10-litre the container and pour the warm 35%sugar syrup. The neck of the cylinder tie gauze and put in a warm place with a temperature of 25-30 °C. To 6-th the day when the squash in the cylinder surface, and the juice will gather at the bottom, with gauze the bottle off, install the water trap and sealed. Cylinder set in the fermentation process, which, depending on the room temperature, can last 30-50 days. After this period, carefully pour off the juice in net cylinder, and pulp press. Received from her juice is filtered, and drain the tank, re-establish water lock, seal and withstand another 20-30 days under the gate. After this period wine carefully pour off the sediment and pour into clean dry bottles, cork up and stand in the cold dark room for storage.

 

Cherry wine

1-st method. Cherry juice 10 litres of water, - 2.5 l, sugar - 1.25 kg (if cherries sweet); or cherry juice - 10 l, water - 5 l, sugar - 4 kg (if cherries sour). Mature cherry wash, give the water drain, milled together with bones, squeeze the juice. Make 10 g wine-stone (or citric acid) and put to ferment. Further on conventional technology. The wine is well fermenting and self light.

2-nd method (strong wine). Cherry juice - 10 l, water - 2.5 l, sugar - 2.5 kg, alcohol to be added to the ready the wine. Ripe cherries are washed, crushed, by removing the majority (70-80%). All components (except alcohol) is mixed, do the mash, add the yeast leaven is put to ferment. After 10 days of wine removed with the sludge, add alcohol (0.5 l per 10 liters of wine), 1 kg of sugar, mix and stand up to 7-10 days. Then filtered, bottled and clog.

3-rd method (light wine). Cherry juice - 10 l, sugar - 0.5 kg, wine-stone acid, 3 g (if cherries sweet); or cherry juice - 10 l, water - 2 l, sugar - 1 kg (if cherries sour). The components are mixed, put on fermentation and prepare wine for this technology is described. It turns out a thick fragrant wine.

The juice of cherries is separated with difficulty, so marc pour water on the day and wrung out. Amount of added water you need to take into account in the preparation of the wort.

 

Blackberry wine

Blackberry - 2.5 kg, sugar - 1.5 kg, honey - 250 g, water - 10 l. In a wooden barrel, stretch my blackberry, fill it with 6 litres of water and put on 4 days in a cool place. On the 5th day of the mass filter through a fine sieve. Liquid set aside, and blackberry stretch hands, pour 4 l of water and let it stand for 6 hours. Then a lot of again strain through a sieve, wring out well berries and throw it away. Both fluid stir, add sugar and lime honey, pour into a small barrel, close it and put in a cool place. Six months later you get wonderful fragrant blackberry wine.

 

Raisins and beer

Raisins - 2.5 kg, sugar, 250 g of beer and 200 ml, water - 5 l. Stir well water with raisins, neck dishes close cloth, and leave for 10-15 days. When you begin to wander, 2 times a day stir stick. When mass will cease to wander, liquid pour in another bowl, a lot of stretch and squeeze, add sugar and beer.

 

Raisins

Raisins - 1.2 kg of sugar - 300 g, water - 2.5 litres. Clean raisins, pour sugar syrup (from the water and sugar). Leave for 10-15 days to raisins engorged, at the same time each day stir. Then pour the liquid into another bowl, a lot of stretch, then all drain into a suitable container, filling it up to the edge. When the liquid in the capacity because of evaporation decrease, from top to add syrup, cooked in the same proportion, and keep up to complete fermentation. In the end result excellent wine.

 

Viburnum (guelder rose)

For table wine, juice viburnum - 1 l of water 1.7 liter, sugar, 300 g; for a dessert wine, juice viburnum - 1l, water - 0,5 l, sugar - 350 g; for liqueur wines: juice viburnum - 1 l, water - 150 ml sugar - 400 g. Viburnum berries separate from peduncles, chop, add water and sugar and place on fermenting for 3-4 days, after which the separate the juice and add the remaining water and part of the sugar. Sugar should be add a la carte on the 4-th, 7-th and 10-th day of fermentation. The total number of the added water and sugar for preparation of different wines should be couched in the same proportions, mentioned above. Wine is made according to the usual the technology, but the best of viburnum prepare fermented wine.

 

Strawberry wine

Strawberry squash - 4-5 kg, sugar syrup - 4 l (1.6 kg of sugar in 3 l of water). Strawberry pulp put in a 10-litre tank, pour the warm 35 %sugar syrup. The neck of the cylinder tie gauze and put a warm place. On the 4-6-I day, when the squash in a cylinder up, and the juice will gather at the bottom, on the neck of the cylinder install water shutter and let stand for 20 days. Then with the help of the siphon tube carefully pour off the wort into a clean container, pulp press and filtered. Received squeezed juice also drain into the tank, re-establish water the shutter and withstand another 20-30 days. Then drain the wine of the sediment, pour in prepared bottles, cork up and stand in the cold dark cellar on storage. Season of preparation: may-june.

 

Red currant (strong)

Red currant - 6 kg of berries, sugar - 1,25 kg (plus sugar for inclusion in semi finished wine), vodka or cognac - 1 l for every 10 liters of wine. Grapes are crushed, add sugar, put on a fermentation. If you want to get harsh wine, the branches are not separate. Fermented wine is filtered, defend, poured into the tank. For every 10 liters of wine add 1 kg of sugar and 1 litre of vodka or cognac, mix and give settle 6-8 weeks. Once filtered, bottled and clog. Wine is ready in 3-4 months.

 

Red currant

Currant juice - 0.5 l, sugar - 0.5 kg, water 1l. Red currants thoroughly washed, cleaned, grind in the deep dish and a good squeeze out the juice. Currant juice pour into a jar, add the sugar and water and put to ferment for 3-4 weeks. During this time the contents of the banks need some time mix of clean wood spoon. When the juice is clean, strain, pour in a bottle and tightly sealed. The wine is ready to eat.

 

Raspberry wine (good)

Raspberry - 5 kg, water - 2 l, sugar, 300 g (plus sugar for inclusion in semi finished wine), alcohol. Raspberry squeeze, not mine, add 1 liter of water and 300 grams of sugar. To marc add 1 liter of water, insist 5-6 hours, again pressed. The resulting juice mixed with earlier clothesline, add the yeast yeast, put on a fermentation. In 7-10 days filter, add 150 g of sugar for each a litre of received wort and continue to fermentation. After the end of the fermentation add alcohol (0.5 l per 10 liters of wine), if you wish, add sugar, bottled and sealed.

One of the recipes yeast yeast: 30-35 g pressed yeast mixed with 1 cup of warm boiled water, 1 hour. l. sugar, leave in a warm place for 1.5-2 hours.

 

Raspberry wine

Crimson squash - 4-5 kg, sugar syrup - 4 l (1.6 kg of sugar in 3 l of water). Crimson pulp put in a 10-litre tank, pour the warm 35 %sugar syrup. The neck of the cylinder tie gauze and put in a warm place. On the 4-6-I day, when the squash in a cylinder up, and the juice will gather at the bottom, on the neck of the cylinder install water shutter and let stand for 20 days. Then with the help of the siphon tube carefully pour off the wort into a clean container, pulp press and filtered. Received squeezed juice also drain into the tank, re-establish water the shutter and withstand another 20-30 days. After the merge of the wine of the sediment, pour in prepared bottles, cork up and stand in the cold dark cellar on storage. Season preparations: June.

 

Red ashberry

For the preparation of table wine: juice red ashberry - 1l, water - 2.5 l, sugar - 500 g; for a dessert wine: juice of red ash - 1l, water - 1l, sugar - 1 kg; for liqueur wines: juice of red ash - 1 l of water 2 cups, sugar - 0,8 kg. Mature berries mountain ash (frostbitten on a branch or in the freezer for 10-12 h) separate from peduncles, pour boiling water warms up to 20 minutes, drained water and again poured with boiling water and poured water. Grapes are crushed, the press, pulp pour hot water (70-80 °C) for 5-6 hours and again pressed (the quantity of added water is taken into account in the preparation of wort). Juices mixed. The wort is administered yeast yeast and prepare wine according to the well-known technology. Rowanberries wine materials are mainly used for the preparation of blend wines.

 

Plum wine (fast food)

Prunes - 8 kg of sugar, 1 kg, water 1l. Good ripe plums clear from the seeds and put in 10-liter a glass bowl, add the boiled warm water, mix and leave for fermentation. After 5 days squeeze the pulp, into the liquid, add sugar sand and 2-3 times a day interfere with the wooden stick. When finally end fermentation, strain. After 2-3 weeks you get a sour-sweet the wine of dark color.

 

Plum wine

1-st method. Plum squash - 5 kg, water - 3 l, sugar. From the fruit remove the bones, chop, pour hot water (70-80 °C), in 2-3 days the press, add to 300 g sugar per 1 liter of the obtained juice. From 1/4 of the seed extract the kernel and add in a vessel for fermentation. Fermentation lasts for 12 months, wine matures and lightened.

2-nd method. Juice yellow (white) plums - 10 l, water - 1l, sugar - 300 g. Components of the mix, then the process goes on conventional technology. Wine turns out sugary and fragrant.

 

Plum wine

After harvesting, draining the berries are not washed and give them a little bit of jerking (2-3 days) under the open sky. At this time on them settle fungi yeast, under the influence of which will be fermentation. After the berries must be placed in a strong capacity and grind to a state of homogeneous paste, that is, each berry should be mashed and turned in mashed potatoes. In this puree add clean water in a ratio of 1:1 (by volume) and leave the mixture on the air. Of course, it should cover capacity of gauze or a mosquito net, because the smell of drain attract hordes of the wasp and fruit flies.

When the surface of the mixture will begin to appear foam and bubbles (it started the process of fermentation) and marc will be separated from the mixture of juice and water, it should strain the mixture through a fine mesh. Dry insoluble substances and bones are sent to compost, and the the juice (in fact this is an extract of the drain, but we'll call her plum juice is poured into sealed containers for fermentation. The juice is added the sugar from the calculation of 200-250 g/l for dry and semi-dry wine and 300-350 g/l for sweet and sweet wines. Addition of sugar produced by the mixing directly in the juice.

The vessels are to be filled by not more than 75 %, as in the process of fermentation is formed strong enough thick foam. Then the vessels is closed and establish water gates. The simplest water lock is a piece of tube, one end of the pipeline into the vessel, and the other in a container (glass) with water. Then carbon dioxide freely will come out from the vessel, and outside air will not be able to get into it.

The process of fermentation is the usual way and when the temperature of 20-25 °C lasts a month and a half. When the selection gas stop, and the new wine must be drained from the sediment and pour into other sealed vessels on the maturing.

Unlike apple wine plum wine lightening very very slowly. Particles of insoluble substances so small, that are not filtered out any filters, therefore, in plum wine there's always some turbidity and how would haze, which, however, does not affect the taste. And even the wine of two-, three-year exposure, being filled in the purest vessel (for example, decantor) and after standing in it literally 2-3 days, gives barely a significant sediment at the bottom. We need to take it philosophically, this property plum wine. By the way, the japanese and chinese plum the wine that is sold in hypermarkets, transparent, not because it quality is, but because it's not wine for at all, and restored from the wine material product...

The maturing of the plum wine lasts well as a few months, after which the wine acquires its own unique flavour and spicy aroma. In plum wine in the process of maturing add cloves, apple wine or wine of black ash.

 

Black currant

Fill the bottle of berries of black currant at 1/3. Cook sugar syrup from the calculation of 125 g of sugar per 1 liter of water, cool and pour in a bottle with berries 3/4 full. Add the yeast leaven put a cork with a water seal and keep at room the temperature. When you are finished with the rapid fermentation, add the sugar from the calculation of 125 g on 1 l of must, dissolving it in a small amount of water. After 3-4 months wine drain a bottle of smaller size, tightly sealed and put in a cool place. Even after 3-4 months of wine to pour in a bottle.

 

Mulberry

The juice of the mulberry - 0.5 l, water - 0,5 l, sugar -150g, cinnamon - 5 g, strong white wine, 1 liter for every 10 liters of wine. Berries collect in dry weather, when the color, they will acquire a black shade, leave for 24 hours and squeeze the juice. To detachable juice add equal the amount of water, and 5 g of cinnamon and 150 grams of sugar per liter diluted fruit juice, put on a 5-6 days to ferment, filtered, is added for every 10 l of the obtained wine 1 liter of strong white wine and advocate for 2 weeks. After removed with the sludge, add sugar to taste, pour in a bottle and sealed.

 

Plum drink

Rose hip - 1 kg, sugar - 1 kg, water - 3 l. Ripe not frostbitten hips thoroughly cleaned, rinsed in water. Remove the seeds and fall asleep in a bank capacity of 5 l, pour the chilled sugar syrup. The bank cover with a thin cloth and put in a warm place in 3 months. From time to time the bank shaking. At the expiration of term juice strain, pour in a bottle, tightly sealed and put in the basement or in the sand box. The longer the wine drawn, so it is tastier and stronger.

 

Apple wine

1-st method. The juice of apples - 10 l, pear juice - 1,5-2 cups, sugar - 2 kg. A mixture of sour and sweet apples chop, hold for 2 days, squeeze out the juice. The juice of apples add pear juice and sugar. Ready wort put on fermentation and further the process to conduct the usual technology described above.

2-nd method. Apple juice - 7 l, rowanberry (or thorns) juice - 0.7 l, water - 1,5 liters, sugar - 2,6 kg, vodka or alcohol. The apple juice add rowanberry (or thorns) juice and sugar, pour water, make a yeast starter and put to ferment. Captured with a draught of wine pour alcohol (per 10 l of wine add 1 liter of vodka, or 0.5 l alcohol), mixed last week, filtered, bottled and clog.

3-rd method (light wine). Apples - 7,5-10 kg, sugar - 1 kg per 5 litres of liquid, water - 2.5 litres. Ripe fragrant apples mince, put in a glass bowl, pour boiled warm water, good mix and leave for fermentation. After 5 days squeeze the pulp, after which the liquid add sugar sand. In day 2- 3 times stir stick. To give the wine the color you want, with the help of burnt sugar. After 2-3 weeks it can be use, this wine has a strength of 4-5 degrees.

 

Apple dessert wine

Apple juice - 10 l, yeast - 0.2 l, sugar was 2.32 kg (plus sugar to add to the finished wine). From juice, yeast and of 1.32 kg of sugar prepare wort. After 3-4 days add another 1 kg of sugar. Fermented wort and prepare wine. To give the guilt of completeness, the original and the completeness of taste, it sweetens, add sugar. To obtain a liqueur wine on 1 l of add 200 g sugar-dessert - 100-160 g. Sugar is dissolved in a small amount of some mulled wine. Finished the wine is bottled in bottles or bottles to half of the neck, tightly sealed plugs. After 2-3 weeks the the wine is ready to eat. Dessert wines contain 14-16 about. % alcohol, 10-16% of sugar, 0,6-0,7% of organic acids.

 

Apple semi-sweet wine

Apple juice - 10 l, sugar - 1.8 kg, honey. Semi-sweet table wine - light refreshing drink a pleasant taste, containing 10-13 about. % alcohol, 5-8% of sugar and 0.6-0.7 % organic acids. For its preparation to 10 litres of juice add 1 kg of sugar in the wort and 0, 8 kg in 3-4 days. Fermentation of the wort carry out the usual way. Semi-sweet wine is characterized by a high content of alcohol, sugar and acids, so it is unstable in storage and is prone to fermenting. His is pasteurized before bottling and sweetens before use, from the calculation of 50-60 g on 1 l of wine. In the apple, as well as in the wine from the old gooseberry winemakers recommend instead of sugar add lime or flower honey at the rate of 50-100 g on 1 l of wine.

 

Apple low alcoholic wine

Light and cheap natural wines can be get out of the autumn and early winter varieties of apples without added sugar and water. Freshly extracted juice of ripe apples fill cultural yeast. Immediately after the end of fermentation, the wine is poured from the sediment and poured under plug in just sterilized bottles and sealed. Such the wine has the fortress of 5-6%, so it is unstable in storage and is subject to rapid consumption. Keep it needs to be in the refrigerator.

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Growing grapes