Tab is vineyards
Derivation of frost varieties of grapes
When a vineyard near the walls and pavilions on the bushes for the winter has left uncovered, as the bend them to the ground is not possible. From this it follows that for the near-wall culture of grapes needed cold-resistant varieties. But our high-quality European varieties of grapes, as already mentioned, not cold-resistant and frost-given Isabella is not so high-quality fruit. The problem arises: to work on breeding new varieties - high-quality, frost resistant, but also to improve the frost already existing valuable cultivars.
New varieties are created by hybridization followed by education and hybrid selection.
To obtain high-quality cold-resistant hybrids to interbreed different European and Central Asian varieties of grapes with good fruit flavor, with grades of frost.
Of the European varieties, for example, hybridization can be recommended for the following: intense accumulate sugar White Muscat, Muscat Pink and Black Kishmish, early varieties of Pearls Saba, Madeleine Anzhevin and Chaush with well matured wood, from the Central - Large Tayfi, Nimrang, Katta Kurgan and others. From frost forms most suitable for hybridization are varieties of the form Labruska - Isabella, Lydia, and others, as well as Grade Amur grapes in areas infested with phylloxera, we can also recommend the varieties and hybrids of Riparia and Rupestris.
Success depends primarily on the ability to choose parental pairs based on personal observation of the behavior of various sorts in the area where breeding work is carried out. It is important not only skillfully select varieties for breeding, but also to select for this purpose the most suitable shrubs parent varieties. For example, if you notice that a bush shrubs are better than others in this class brings the winter or has the best wood aging and less damaged by frost, then the crossing should take just a bush.
Produce desirable breeding in the area for which to deduce new varieties to hybrid seeds formed on the bushes that grow in this area. To import hybrid seeds from other places should only be if there is no place for shrubs required for mating types. In this case, you can go to any research institution on wine with a request to send hybrid seeds for breeding high quality frost resistant varieties.
Crossing technique is as follows. At selected for the hybridization of the bushes are choosing large inflorescences that are in strong, well-growing shoots. The upper part of the bunch is cut to half along the ridge. On the rest of the castrated flowers. Thin forceps in 1 or 2 doses together with the cap removed anthers from each bud. On each inflorescence buds castrated 50-100, the rest are cut off with scissors with pointed tips. To castrate the day when going to see the bush blossomed flowers.
After castration in an inflorescence wear bushing to prevent him from getting pollen from neighboring flowering shrubs. Insulator prepared from parchment paper, which is cut into pieces 20 cm wide and 25 cm in length then cut the leaves are glued to the tube. To do this, take a half-liter bottle, wrapping up its leaf edges and glue. The end of the tube formed of parchment (from the bottle) dipped in water for 3-4 cm, then tied her nylon thread on the edge of the wet places on a single node, moistened rim turn down, remove the bottle and attach the other end of the thread, after having invested in this edge of a small ball of cotton wool.
Prepared in this way put an insulator on the inflorescence, pedicel wrapping up a piece of cotton thread and tighten. The next morning, untie the upper end of the facility and inspect the stigmas of castrated flowers. If they appear liquid droplets, it is necessary to make pollination, if there were no drops, insulators and tie every morning inspection continues until the stigmas of the flowers will not appear in the least. This point can not miss, because pollination droplets before or after drying, the results do not give - interbreeding is impossible.
If the father's bush blooms before the parent, pollen for pollination collected in advance. For this purpose, the anthers of flowering inflorescences shake (with pollen) in the paper packet, dried in the shade and kept in a dry place until such time as the need to make pollination. During pollination, pollen from the anthers are gaining a brush and shake over the stigmas, which appeared in the least.
Crossbreeding can be better if the father and mother bushes bloom at the same time. Then, with good ripe inflorescences of his father's bush is cut several branches, bring to the insulators on the mother unleashed a bush, touching anther to the stigma, and then removed. This method of pollination, gives the best results.
After 2-3 weeks, remove the paper insulators and on inflorescences with young ovaries berries wear gauze bags. In the event of full ripening of grapes are cut and removed from the berries of hybrid seeds.
For about two months before sowing the seeds stratified. They are soaked in water, surfaced thrown away, and drowned soaked for 2 days. The water is then decanted, and the seeds are mixed with the soil of moderate moisture. For this purpose, should take a good black earth mixed mixed with sand.
Mixed with the ground seeds sprinkled in small pouches that can be easily prepared from pieces of old canvas hose. In each bag put a metal label that is different from the others by its shape. Labels can be round, triangular, square, with a different number of holes, etc. The magazine is written, which corresponds to a combination of crossing some form of labels.
Canvas bags with seeds stored until spring in a box with earth moderate humidity. At the bottom of the box size 40 x 50 cm layer of soil is poured 10-12 cm, placed in a number of bags and sleep in the same layer of soil. Box kept in the basement or in another room with a temperature below 8 ∞ C or below 0 ∞ C. Covered with a sheet iron box, lest the land dried up, and that the mouse did not reach the seeds.
Sowing seeds of grapes are produced in a time when flowering apple trees. 2 weeks before planting box that holds the seeds, put on a greenhouse frame per day, if sunny day, or in a warm room, if the weather is overcast. At night, endure box into the yard to seed as much as possible cooled. Under such extreme temperature variations accelerated the germination of seeds. Usually, 7-8th day they burst, and on the 10th day a stub. Therefore, starting from 5-6-days monitor the state of seeds: take out the bag from the box, take out a few seeds, washed with water and stuck the ground thoroughly inspected. If no cracks, stratification continues.
When the majority of seed cracks appeared, they were washed off the ground (preferably on a strainer under running water) and sown in the pre-prepared beds. Row spacing - 40 cm between seeds - 7-8 cm, so 1 meter is planted 12-15 seeds. Depth of seal - 3 cm.
Immediately after sowing, watering done. Watering should moderate. Excessive watering is dangerous for the seeds of grapes, because they can all rot and waterlogging of the soil entirely stops germination. Land should be loose and normal humidity, the air had access to seeds.
Under favorable conditions the seedlings appear after 8-10 days. If cooling occurs, they are somewhat delayed.
In the first year of care for the seedlings is to provide them with good soil and air power.
After the appearance of 5-6 leaves make the first feeding. To one bucket of water take 100 grams of potassium nitrate, 100 g of superphosphate, and add a pinch of borax or boric acid. The resulting solution poured over the seedlings at the rate of 0.5 liters per 1 meter of order. Be sure that the solution does not get to the leaves, as obtained from this burn. After making the dressing makes watering, fertilizer to penetrate deeper.
To further soil did not dry up and was moderately wet, it must be frequently loosened by preventing formation of a crust of irrigation and rainfall. It is very important because the grape plant develops well only if the air can freely penetrate to the roots.
In mid-summer, when the roots are already grown in the aisles make granulated superphosphate and make ripping to a depth of 15-16 cm on seedlings when there was a first antenna, feed them the same fertilizing solution, as well as for the first time, but take even 1 l solution of 1 meter.
To the seedlings do not lie on the ground, arrange support. You can make a temporary trellis: drive every 3-4 m stakes and tension between the 2 rows of twine.
Seedlings sprayed with liquid Bordeaux, which is prepared in the same way as for the old bushes, and then diluted by half with water. When spraying the seedlings is particularly important that in Bordeaux fluid was neutral reaction (wetting blue and red litmus paper to retain its color). An excess of copper sulphate (acid) or lime (alkali) causes severe burns seedlings are leaves, especially the tops, which delays their development.
After the first frost dig up the seedlings. For this work you need to choose a warm, frost-free day. Even with frost in -0,5 ∞ C just taken out of the ground roots very quickly perish.
Dug out the seedlings into bundles linked by cross combinations, they stick the label on which are marked the names of the parent forms and the number of plants. In addition, make the appropriate list in the magazine.
In winter, the seedlings was added dropwise with sand in the cellar and see to it that they do not dry. In the spring, in mid-April, the seedlings are removed from the cellar and planted in a permanent place.
Seedlings have a strong grape growing and under favorable conditions, very quickly becomes a powerful liana shaped plants.
To ensure the proper upbringing of hybrid seedlings, you need to apply agricultural techniques, whose main elements are:
Х deep tillage and increase soil fertility before planting;
Х the provision of water (total exclusion of the possibility of drought, there is a lack of moisture);
Х ensuring adequate nutrition area in which the leaves of hybrid seedlings are well and evenly lit to the sun;
Х creating the conditions for the development of hybrids in liana shaped plants;
Х pruning on the principle of selection and abandonment in the bush most powerful, well-developed annual vines,. timely feeding and watering plants.
For planting of hybrid seedlings to choose open spaces, rather than protected areas with a warmer microclimate. It is important for hybrid kennel is located in the typical for the area, climate conditions.
Planting of seedlings to a permanent place at the walls and arbors make in the spring. The distance between the bushes in a row - 1.25 m (in the future plant stand density will decrease as a result of culling frost-resistant seedlings). In an open space area must be a number from north to south. If seedlings are planted not in one but in several rows, row spacing shall be 1.5 m wrong act, those who increase the number of plants for planting seedlings thicken. Close planting - this is the first breach of the good nutrition of plants and growing power of the bushes.
Once on the plantation grooves made breakdown and planned landing site, digging a pit depth of 60 cm and at the bottom of each poured on 200 g of granulated superphosphate. Taken out of the basement of the seedlings examined, sections of the roots update. If there are some annual shoots, leaving only one, for all its length, the rest are cut off. After that, proceed to the landing.
Need to plant so that the brown neck (the place of transition in the roots shoot) was at a depth of 50 cm If the flight is longer than 50 cm, after planting and watering hole to sleep, and protruding above ground part of the shoot tied up to a peg. If the length of the shoot is less than 50 cm, after planting and watering hole is not completely buried, but only on the length of the shoot, leaving the top two not buried kidney. In the fall, when he grows up and will be wood upper escape hole completely buried.
In the first year after planting a permanent place of many of the seedlings are growing very strongly and can give an increase in annual shoots of 2-3 m. If the hybrid seedlings were planted not by the walls and arbors, to the first year set the trellis. Its height should be 1.8 m, to arrange for her escape, and subsequently form the stems are tall shrub. During the first summer to give two dressing, tie green shoots, implement measures to combat mildew. In the southern areas close for the winter seedlings should not be, and especially in the northern and north-east in the first winter annual vines should cover, but in the second winter (after landing a permanent position) need not be close.
Hybrid seedlings pruned as multidecks bowline and bushes, but first, to avoid overloading the seed plants, it is necessary to leave one by one trunk.
On the 2nd and 3rd year seedlings come into bearing, and with it comes a new challenging period in the breeding work - sampling period.
Selection for resistance to frost makes the very nature of a frosty winter. Selection for fruit quality and yield to produce breeder discard all hybrid seedlings with male flowers. During the next 3-4 years, carefully watching the yield, quality and frost remaining berries bushes, select the best hybrids for breeding.
Bushes grown from cuttings taken from the seed of grape plants are often different from him on a number of features. Therefore, shrubs, cuttings obtained from a selected hybrid seedlings, you need to carefully check again to frost, fruit quality and yield. If the test showed that the grounds on which selected hybrid, remain the same and its progeny, grown from cuttings, or even increased, we can assume that the design of a new good grade. It remains to give it a name and to begin its mass reproduction.
Enhance the existing varieties of frost is possible by clonal selection. Under the influence of the conditions in the vine can change certain properties, and these changes can often be inherited by vegetative reproduction. It also happens that not all bush varies, but some of his shoots. Quite often, these changes may be useful to humans. When selecting shrubs for reproduction or shoots with symptoms changed in useful for the breeder's side, you can get better grades. This is the clonal selection.
In viticulture there are many varieties with valuable economic properties that result from changing selection of shoots and shrubs. If the modified shoots propagated by cuttings, are the so-called clones, which often give new names and find them new varieties. Thus, by way of national selection had created the world famous Rose Chasselas grapes, Pinot White, Gray Pinot, Chaush Pink, etc.
Under certain climatic and agronomic conditions may change the properties of grape vines and upward frost. Reproducing those vines, cultivating their vegetative progeny under conditions that enhance their resilience, and using iterative selection, you can get frost clone a good grade.
The selection made after a harsh winter with strong, long frost. In these cases, spring bushes pruned to no swelling of the buds. When the buds begin to swell, inspect the vines. At this time, it is easy to distinguish shoots well have undergone cold, from being damaged. On shoots damaged by frost, the kidneys do not swell, and when pressed with your finger easily disappear. At the site had fallen away kidney detected a black speck. However, the presence of swollen kidney is still not sufficiently convincing evidence that the flight suffered a good frost. We should also inspect the bark. To do this, make a small cut so that only shave the living tissue of the cortex. If this crust revealed a bright emerald green, then escape is not damaged. If the color of her dark-green to brown with the transition, it shows that escape frost damage.
After that, select those bushes on which frost does not damage the stems or damaged only a small part of them. On these bushes select the best vines, cut them with cuttings and planted in rooting for tabs. From tabs select the most powerful, well barked saplings and planted in a permanent place.
If you carry a selection of after every severe winter, it is possible for each subsequent vegetative progeny increase frost bushes. But in practice, so never do that. Cuttings of European varieties harvested usually in the fall, fearing that the vines will be damaged by frost in the spring and they can not be used for planting. Since the fall of harvested cuttings are stored in the basement or the trenches, their selection for resistance to frost is completely excluded. Also, it is not possible in an industrial wine farms and state farms, where the European varieties of shrubs for winter refuge. But in a wall and bowline culture, where the bushes for the winter are not sheltered, vine-lovers can lead to the selection of frost.
For the selection of vines for frost can also take advantage of early autumn and late spring frost. It is noticed that after the early autumn frosts to most of the leaves of the shoots are killed, but some of them, they remain completely intact. These shoots with intact leaves, we should note and observe them the next spring, especially if the winter has been frosty. If they wintered well, it is advisable to take them for breeding.
Late spring frost damage young green shoots, which in most cases die completely or they freeze the top, but a small part of the shoot (sometimes 2-3 bush) still remains intact. These shoots should also be noted and prepare them from cuttings. It is believed that the kidneys and the annual shoots of European grape varieties begin to be damaged at temperatures below -22 ∞ C, continued for more than 6 h, and at lower temperatures and long-term damaged wood. The degree of damage to shrubs and vines selected at the same time different. While some have strong frost damage, while others remain intact or are damaged a little. This property of withstanding low temperatures can also be fixed and strengthened in the vegetative progeny of recurrent directional selection.