Growing grapes

 

 

 

Grape varieties and their characteristics

Table varieties of grapes

Technical varieties of grapes

The classification of grape varieties on the novelty

The choice of grape variety

 

Tab is vineyards

Biological characteristics of grapes

Inventory winegrower

Preparation for tab a vineyard

Planting of vines

The quality of seedlings grape

Formation and pruning vines

Guyot system

 

Wine glasshouse culture

Soil conditions and location

Planting grapes

Pruning and forming grapes

Pollination of grapes

Decimation grapes

Supplementary feeding and watering grapes

The harvest of grapes

Pests and diseases of grapes

 

The basic rules grafting grapes

Grafting of grapes eye or bud

Grafting of grapes in a split green shoots

Grafting of grapes to split trunk

Using last year's grape cuttings

Grafting of grapes "green on green'

The method of budding grapes

Kilchevanie of grapes

Care of grafted grape plants

Reproduction of the grape

Wintering grapes

Derivation of frost varieties of grapes

 

The use of grapes for landscaping

Planting grapes at the walls and arbors

Formation and pruning vines for greenery

 

Care of vineyards

Artificial pollination of grapes

Fertilizers for grapes

Recovering the vines from frost damage

Elimination of thinning grapes

Pruning of vine

Green operations in the Vineyard

Improving the quality of grapes

 

Methods of protection of grapes

Pests of grapevine

Diseases of the vine

Weed plants

Protection of vineyards from disease

Definition of diseases of grapes on the external signs of injury

Protecting grapes from pests and diseases

Characteristics of herbicides permitted for use

Precautions when working with pesticides

 

Collection and processing of grapes

Collection and storage of grapes

Grapes in cooking

 

Making a home of grape wine

Dry wines

Dessert wines

Manufacturing technology of sweet dessert of grape wine

The composition of grape wine

Diseases of the wine

Classification of wines

Table wines

Local wines

Quality wines

Wine tasting

Making wine from fruit and berries

Storage of wine

 

Culture of wine drinking

Culture of wine consumption

 

Green operations in the Vineyard

In the complex of technical measures, which would produce high yields of good quality grapes, agricultural practices are important supporter of grapes and operations with the green parts of the bush.

Garter aims to properly distribute the fruit vines and fix them in position to protect the shoots from damage and give a definite direction of trunk, sleeves and fruiting shoots.

To green operations include: fragments of green shoots, shoot tips topping, extra pollination, remove side shoots, chasing. These operations are essentially a continuation of the crop and help establish a balance between aerial and root systems of plants.

Garter grapes. The timing of the two types of garters - dry and green. When dry suspender to count tie stem bush, to the wire support - shoulder cordon, sleeves, fruit vines; with the green - tie vegetative shoots.

Dry suspender in zone of not sheltered  winegrowing is carried out in winter-spring period, in the area of ​​sheltered wine - after the opening of the bushes. Complete the garter to the swelling of eyes, as blossoming buds are very fragile and easily break off. Methods for garters have a significant impact on the vine, and is primarily due to the phenomenon of polarity. On vertically tied with last year's shoots develop only the upper eyes - in connection with the potential fruitfulness of such shoots is shown only partially. This method is used mainly garter in deriving the trunks. If you be tied bushes, formed by the type of the fan, hoses and fruit evenly distribute the arrows in the plane of the series, placing them obliquely or horizontally, minimizing the expression of polarity. Fruiting shoots Cord forming tie the arcs in a line inclined to the first or the second wire.

If you use be tied suspender strong material, as during the summer, he must bear the weight of the crop and green mass of bushes. As the material used suspender bass, willow twigs, twine, raffia, viscose and cotton yarn, waste textiles, plastic tape. Garter produce "eight". Twine around the wire is fixed first, and then tie them to the vine. At the present time is widely used in steel cord suspender low-carbon wire in a paper wrapper. Using the cord with loop knitting scissors increases productivity at the Garter in half. At large hi-stem forming a free one-time promising gains overhang the lengthy multi-part fastening bush (cordon arms) to the trellis with iron cramps. On the bushes with the fan is recommended to use special forming air looper to aggregate PAV-8. Vines attach a thin synthetic thread without knots.

To be tied green shoots begin after the shoots reach lengths of 40-50 cm, and will act on the second wire. When they reach the next tier of wire make a second, third, and in some cases, and the fourth garter. The purpose of the green garter - to protect the young shoots from wind damage, spread them in space, to create better conditions for lighting and convenience of works to care for a vineyard.

When shoots are distributed be tied to a distance of 5 cm from each other. Suspender material have "eight". Green shoots tied up at an angle of 40-45 °, which increases the productivity of the kidneys. In areas where the expected mechanized harvesting combines, green shoots are not tied up closer to 25-30 cm and intermediate anchor poles trellis. To increase productivity Institute of Grape and Wine "Magarach" proposed shuttle knotless green garter way: if the wire strung alternately on both sides of the column in 20-25 cm, green garter replace the winding green shoots between the wires on the wide-hi stem vineyards that provide free overhang of growth and green piping does not hold.

Fragment of grapes - the most important of all green operations, it complements and corrects the winter pruning. Thanks to a fragment obtained free location shoots on the bush in the plane of the series and improved lighting and ventilation, provides more uniform growth of the shoots, clusters, and create conditions for laying the next harvest.

The purpose of the fragments depends on the age and vineyards. At the young vineyards main goal debris - a quick and proper removal of the forming. In this case, remove the stems, which are by location and development are not required for the formation of (weak, doubles, extra on the sleeves and shoulders cordon). On the main task of vineyards wreckage - the establishment of the final load of bushes well-developed fruitful and barren shoots forming and preservation.

Fragment of the shoots is carried out in two periods: the first - after bud break when shoots reached 5-7 cm in length, the second - 10-12 days after the first, when the shoots well be designated the inflorescence. It is very important at this point to adjust the number of shoots on a branch of substitution - there should be no more than three. You can not delay in carrying out the debris, as quickly shoots and woody bush, when removed, is applied to a large number of major injuries. If the bush is overloaded, then removed and the portion of shoots with inflorescences.

It was established experimentally that the vertical trellis with a fragment of the varieties with a small bunch can be left at 1 meter tapestry 30-35 shoots for table varieties with a large bunch of - shoots 20-25. On underutilized bushes from the wreckage abstain.

Topping sprouts grapes spend for the redistribution of nutrients between the principal organs of vine plants. Dates pinched depend on the tasks assigned to these agricultural practices.

To accelerate the formation of clusters shoots pinch out in early June, when they are actively growing. Do it at the height where you want to get their branching.

In order to prevent the shedding of flowers and ovaries topping shoots spend 1-2 days before flowering, thus removing one upper internode. Pinch the only fruit-bearing shoots. Removal of the shoot apex suspends its growth for 10-15 days, resulting in inflorescences received more nutrients and as a result, more tied bunch of berries and becomes larger.

The rapid recovery of growth of damaged shrubs also reached topping shoots, which accelerates the development of laterals and partially compensates for the loss of the crop.

Timely topping not only increases the yield of this year, but also improves bookmark fruitful buds on shoots for future harvest.

Besides the main shoot, pinch the stepchild to accelerate the formation, rejuvenation and recovery hoses shrubs from frost damage. Topping laterals produced after them will not be less than 6-7 internodes. At hi-stem forming stepsons, usually develop poorly and do not pinch.

Remove side shoots grapes. Laterals - a second-order shoots developing from axillary buds on shoots of the year. In a lot of them tend to develop on underutilized bushes, as if trying to restore the broken relationship between root system and aerial part. Normally loaded on shoots and harvest the bushes stepchildren develop poorly.

Remove side shoots (removal of laterals) is carried out when there is thickening bush shoots and stepchildren are not necessary for the formation of a bush. Remove the stepchild in the length of 12-15 cm completely remove them should not be, because they have a positive impact on the wintering buds at harvest this year, improve the conditions of formation of inflorescence primordia in the kidney. Therefore, instead of complete removal of laterals is recommended topping them over the 2-4th leaf.

Chasing grapes. The operation involves the removal of shoot tips 30-60 cm in length to accelerate their maturation and direction of nutrients to the grapes. To start minting during the decay of shoot growth, usually in late July - early August. Too early and a late coinage ineffective: the early coinage may cause unwanted stepchildren growth and, consequently, inefficient spending nutrients later - no effect.

Weakly growing bushes and shoots, intended for laying cuttings, not minted. At hi-stem vineyards with a free dangling chasing growth, usually not carried out, as in this case is self-regulation of shoot growth.

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Выращивание винограда

 

Growing grapes