Growing grapes

 

 

 

Grape varieties and their characteristics

Table varieties of grapes

Technical varieties of grapes

The classification of grape varieties on the novelty

The choice of grape variety

 

Tab is vineyards

Biological characteristics of grapes

Inventory winegrower

Preparation for tab a vineyard

Planting of vines

The quality of seedlings grape

Formation and pruning vines

Guyot system

 

Wine glasshouse culture

Soil conditions and location

Planting grapes

Pruning and forming grapes

Pollination of grapes

Decimation grapes

Supplementary feeding and watering grapes

The harvest of grapes

Pests and diseases of grapes

 

The basic rules grafting grapes

Grafting of grapes eye or bud

Grafting of grapes in a split green shoots

Grafting of grapes to split trunk

Using last year's grape cuttings

Grafting of grapes "green on green'

The method of budding grapes

Kilchevanie of grapes

Care of grafted grape plants

Reproduction of the grape

Wintering grapes

Derivation of frost varieties of grapes

 

The use of grapes for landscaping

Planting grapes at the walls and arbors

Formation and pruning vines for greenery

 

Care of vineyards

Artificial pollination of grapes

Fertilizers for grapes

Recovering the vines from frost damage

Elimination of thinning grapes

Pruning of vine

Green operations in the Vineyard

Improving the quality of grapes

 

Methods of protection of grapes

Pests of grapevine

Diseases of the vine

Weed plants

Protection of vineyards from disease

Definition of diseases of grapes on the external signs of injury

Protecting grapes from pests and diseases

Characteristics of herbicides permitted for use

Precautions when working with pesticides

 

Collection and processing of grapes

Collection and storage of grapes

Grapes in cooking

 

Making a home of grape wine

Dry wines

Dessert wines

Manufacturing technology of sweet dessert of grape wine

The composition of grape wine

Diseases of the wine

Classification of wines

Table wines

Local wines

Quality wines

Wine tasting

Making wine from fruit and berries

Storage of wine

 

Culture of wine drinking

Culture of wine consumption

 

Grapes in cooking

Shpot, a type of non-alcoholic products from the juice of the grape. In boiled juice, pour a little water and bring to boiling point at obligatory agitated. Then add flour, divorced water, and cook until the formation of the gelatinous mass. If the weight that is placed on the the saucer and chilled, forms a shiny surface, shpot feel ready. For 10 minutes before end of cooking, add spices - crushed a mixture of cinnamon, cloves, cardamom. Ready shpot poured into a clean dry ware, and sprinkle with finely chopped walnuts.

 

Pickled grapes. Pickled grapes have a high flavouring qualities and is used as an snack and a seasoning to meat dishes. For this purpose the most suitable large berry varieties with thick skin and a crispy or fleshy pulp. These classes include Karaburnu, Nimrang, Husayn, Tabriz, Asma, Senso, Agadai, Timur, Golden Dawn, etc. Bunch of grapes is divided into parts, leaving on 5-6 berries on each of them. After careful washing of their rinsed boiled water and is compacted in a clean dish. For marinating suitable small oak barrels, glass bottles, and also banks. The dishes piled high fill berries and pour the marinade so, so that he towered over the berries on 2-3 cm. To fill the dish with a capacity of 10 l it is necessary 5-6 l marinade. In order to avoid the upwelling of berries to fill need to put a small yoke on top of the barrel berries or insert the neck of the bottle 2 twig or 2 tablets, positioned crosswise. To prevent oxidation of the marinade, pour vegetable oil (preferably olive) layer of 0.5-1 cm. After the dishes close parchment paper, and the top cover with a clean cloth and tight tied up with twine. Pickled grapes lasts for about a month. In this the period of his stored at a temperature of no higher than 10 C. Ready grapes in stored in a dry place and at a specified temperature can be valid for use in several months. To prepare the marinade it is best to use wine vinegar, you can also use fruit or vinegar, which should contain not less than 4 % acetic acid and up to 1 % of alcohol. Use acetic essence for marinating it is impossible. If there is a possibility to store the marinade in the room with air temperature not higher than 2-3 C, then the marinade may not contain more than 0,6-0,8 % acetic acid - with such an amount of grapes has the most pleasant flavor. In the case of storage of pickled grapes at a temperature of above 3 C, but no higher than 10 C, the amount of acetic acid in the marinade should be brought up to 1.25-1,50 %. Except vinegar, marinade should contain 15-20% sugar, 1 % of salt and 0,2-0,3 % spices.

Marinade containing vinegar, are prepared only in glass, wood or enameled ware. For this purpose the necessary the amount of water added sugar and salt solution, bring to a boil, boil for 10-15 minutes, after the hot solution through a sieve poured in the dishes, which is tentatively put necessary quantity of vinegar. On top of the dishes are covered with dense matter or cover. Thus come to destroy available in vinegar microorganisms.

Another way to cook the marinade is as follows: in the water, pour vinegar, add sugar, salt, spices. The solution is poured into bottles, which in the pasteurizer heated until the temperature of the solution is not up to 90 C. Pasteurization produce the same way as for the preparation of the juice of the grape. On 1 kg of grapes take 2 cups of water, 1 glass of 3 %nd vinegar, sugar and 1 teaspoon salt. Solution add 5-6 peas of fragrant pepper, 2-3 laurel leaf, a piece of cinnamon and a pinch of cloves.

To prepare the marinade with mustard first make "sweet tea leaves". To do this, 50 g flour boiled a glass of boiled water and leave in a warm place for 2 hours. Collected "pot" is put in 10 l of cold boiled water. Previously during the boiling point in it dissolved 250-500 grams of sugar (in depending on taste). In the resulting solution added 25-50 g mustard and 50 g salt. After thorough mixing of the marinade is ready to -use.

 

Grape jelly - food products, made from fresh grapes, -soaked with sugar syrup or grape juice with subsequent pasteurization. High-quality grape stewed fruit is obtained from vine varieties with dense pulp and firm the skin (Karaburnu, Muscat of Alexandria, Muscat Hamburg, and others), as well as of seedless grape varieties. For grape fruit punch are healthy berries in the technical stage of maturity. The berries without ridges and peduncles are washed, sorted by size, degree of maturity, put in banks and pour sugar syrup certain concentration (not more than 30 %) or grape juice. The temperature of the sugar syrup when filling -- 40 C. Grape juice should have a well-marked pleasant the taste, the fragrance of grape, from which is made; berries should be uniform in size, without mechanical damages, not boiled, with a gentle consistence, paint is homogeneous, inherent in the grape Syrup of grape fruit punch must be transparent, without impurities (may contain suspended solids fruit pulp, not causing its turbidity). Grape juice is stored in clean, dry, well-ventilated warehouses at a temperature of 0 to 25 C and relative humidity of air no more than 75%. Grape compote has a better flavor and nutritional value. His the calorie content of the order 322 Kj/100 g. Grape juice is ready to-eat food, not requiring additional culinary processing; berries from it can be used for the manufacture of pies, cakes.

 

Jelly from grapes. For jelly pick up not fully matured grapes with thick fleshy pulp. It thoroughly wash, give water to drain, pluck berries with ridges, removing the rotten and deformed. Prepared berries placed in enameled saucepan, add water (400 ml per 1 kg of berries), put on a fire and with a weak boiling brew 16 min. The resulting juice is filtered through flannel or 3-4 layer of gauze, and pulp spread in the canvas bag and a little squeeze. Squeezed in this secondary juice is filtered and added to the total mass of juice. Juice is boiled to reduce the initial amount of twice (measurements), removing scum. During the boiling juice parts of added sugar (700 g per 1 l juice) and boiled jelly until ready. Ready-made hot grape jelly is packaged in a heated dry banks, cover them boiled lid, put in a saucepan with water, heated to 70 C, for pasteurization. During pasteurization pot cover with lid. The water level it should be up to 3 cm below the top of the necks cans. The pasteurization at 90 C for cans with a capacity of 0.5 liters - 8-10 min, 1l - 12-15 min. After processing banks hermetically sealed and not turning, cooled.

Readiness jelly from grapes determine as follows: jelly can be removed from the fire, if a drop of syrup not spreads on the surface of dishes.

 

Grape juice. One of the most important and the most valuable in nutrition and dietary respect of a component power supply. Main sugars of grape juice - glucose and fructose is absorbed the body directly. Malic and tartaric acids cause diuretic properties of juice. In addition, very valuable is the presence of in the grape juice biologically active substances and vitamins.

Grape juice can be prepared from all varieties of grapes, but it is better to use for this purpose varieties Aligote, Riesling rhine, Bianca, the Friendship, the Regent, Chardonnay, Viorica, Danko, Orion, Phoenix. The light and fresh juices are obtained when the content in their sugar 15-20% and titratable acids 7-10 g/l. For wringing choose healthy net bunches of grape, berries are separated from crests, placed them in a pouch from a dense fabric or two layers of gauze and wrung out. If bunch of polluted land or heavily sprayed with pesticides, it is necessary to wash them with clean water and after that, well dried. Squeeze the juice can be a small press or in juicers, in which place separated from the crests of the berries. After the juice is put on the lees, thanks to which he exempt from large particles of skin, flesh, etc. In addition, the defending improve its flavour and taste. For obtaining juice of saturated color use grapes with red berries, and for the transition coloring substances from the skin of grapes in the juice of the need to disturb the integrity of by scalds clusters of boiling water. The water is heated to boiling point and lower it to 5 min clusters, placed in a small basket After the grapes are placed in a glass or aluminum utensils, top lid is closed or sheeted. After cooling of him squeeze the juice the usual way.

That the juice is not ferment, it is pasteurized. With the purpose of the juice is heated up to 70-75 C C and maintained at this temperature within 30 min. Pasteurization is repeated twice. It is held in the large pots or barrels. To heat evenly spread on the bottom and side walls of the bottle with the juice, at the bottom of the dish set wooden the stand, which put the bottle. A wooden rack can be replace the layer of chips, paper or straw. During pasteurization the pan should be covered by dense material.

Crockery designed for bottling of juice, must be perfectly clean and free of any smells. It thoroughly wash first, the cold, then hot water with soda and without it, and, finally, double-rinsed clean cold water. The concentration of soda solution 1-3%. Best of all has to be pasteurized juice in the bottle from under the the champagne. Before you wash each bottle carefully inspected, rejects bottles with the smell of kerosene and gasoline, with air bubbles in the glass, with broken edges of the neck. After washing bottles put up the bottom to the water glass. Filled with juice bottles closed sterile traffic jams. It is better for this purpose to adopt the new cork height of 37 to 40 mm. Cork thoroughly washed with water, and within 30-40 minutes are kept in boiling water. After that they are rinsed with clean water and steamed to 20-50 min depending on the quality of the traffic jams. To do this, cork suspended in any container, the bottom of which poured water. The Dishes cover loosely. In boiling water steam passes through the tube. Very well steamed cork sterilized by steeping in 96 % alcohol within 2-3 hours, or 2 % solution of sulfuric acid on for 12-24 hours. At the first pasteurization natural cork can be replace cotton.

For pasteurization grape juice after parking is bottled in bottles, filling them up to the middle of dystocia, and blind stoppers. To cork when heated juice is not departed from the necks, they put on holders or tie them to the bottle a wire or string. After the bottle set in the pasteurizer. In one of them lowered thermometer with a scale of up to 100 C - he will display the temperature of juice during pasteurization. Then in the pasteurizer pour the water, which should not be up to cork, however, exceed the level of juice in a bottle. The use of natural corks, bottles can be stacked horizontally and completely filled with water, which heated gradually. Heating stop after the thermometer will show 70- 75 C. At this temperature bottles stand up to 30 min. After the end of the pasteurization with a decrease in temperature up to 40 degrees WITH their taken out and placed for cooling and clarification. 2-4 days after the first pasteurization grape juice becomes transparent, and at the bottom of bottles precipitate is formed. This juice is suitable for storage and use. To completely get rid of the sludge pasteurized a second time. With this end in 2-3 weeks after the first pasteurized juice from bottles of carefully poured into the sediment. If the deposit is violated, the juice should be filtered through the flannel. Filter made in the form of a cone-shaped end of the bag.

Grape juice is bottled in bottles, net filling them up to the middle of dystocia, close sterile (only natural) plugs. The temperature of the juice with the re-pasteurization. should be 68-72 degrees C, the time - 30 min. For pasteurization recommend put the bottles horizontally. If they are installed vertically, each of these must be turned upside down. This is done in order to moisten the cork juice, making them fully decontaminated. Heating mode water the same as during the first pasteurization. Bottles removed from the water when the temperature juice drop to 40 C. After cooling, the bottle caps are cut off at the necks, lower the top of bottles into the molten resin, wax or paraffin. This prevents the penetration of the juice of microorganisms and moisture. In case of insufficient shalt and poor quality jams juice gets moldy smell and taste.

To store the juice of the most suitable room with constant temperature and low humidity (cellars). When storing the bottles are placed in a horizontal position. The Emergence Of crystal sediment during storage does not affect the taste and nutritional qualities of the juice of the grape, which, being pasteurized, may persist for several years.

 

Grape syrup. For the preparation of syrup suitable grape varieties with white berries with a high sugar content. Absolutely pure grapes squeeze and the resulting juice filtered. Separately cook sugar syrup in a small amount of water. In the concentrated syrup poured grape juice, add 1/2 peeled lemon and cook for a few minutes. After this liquid is filtered and bottled in net bottles. On 1 l the juice of the grape take 1 kg of sugar.

 

Vine. For the preparation of vine selected clusters of nutmeg grapes, different a peculiar fragrance, thoroughly washed with cold water, give water drain and put in a large earthen pitcher or enameled saucepan. In the middle of the packaging put the bag with 25-30 grams of grinded grain field mustard. Every 2-3 rows of grapes shift sliced pears, quince and horseradish. The filled containers from the top is covered with vine with leaves, pour grape jam, put a small weight (oppression) and put in a cool place. After 20-30 days vine ready to -use.

 

Grape liqueur. Washed and dried berries of grapes is separated from crests, while removing damaged or diseased. Then the grapes are placed in a bowl, add to it sugar or sugar syrup. When the capacity of the dishes 10 l take 6 kg grapes, 2.1 kg of sugar, 3 cups of water. The dishes closed water shutter and put in a warm place, where withstand in the next 20-25 days. At the end of the fermentation solution filtered through a gauze and cotton wool, pour into the bottle and close their caps. From the berries, remaining after the filtering, you can prepare fermented juice. For this they crush and pour 25 %sugar syrup. The dishes again closed water shutter and stand in a warm room for a period of 20-30 days. Fermented juice of carefully filtered, bottled and sealed. When the capacity of the dishes 10 l for berries add 4 l of water and 1.35 kg sugar.

 

Vine mustenitsa. Fresh nuts soaked in water for two days. After marinating kernel exempt from the shell and put on a string of length of 30-40 cm. To the bottom the end of the thread is tied peeled sticks. When stringing try all of the kernel place the flat side up. A string with nuts hang out in the sun. Grape juice clarify with the help of white sand or wood ash and boiled until the volume is reduced halfway. After that, for every 5 parts digested juice add one part of starch or flour. Starch contribute in the cold grape juice at continuous stirring. In the resulting slurry is plunged the thread with nut, after which they hang to dry. The dried nuts again immersed in the pulp and again prior to drying. Such an operation do until the diameter of each kernel does not increase up to 4 cm. The thread with nut well dried and subsequently starch, after which they wrapped in parchment paper and placed in a glass or earthenware dishes.

 

Dried grapes. For drying should be pick up the sugar varieties of grapes. Of seedless grape varieties get raisins, and out of sorts with seeds - raisins. Bunch of grapes sort, disposed of immature and damaged berries, washed, soaked in colander and blanched in a solution of baking soda (5-8 g on 1 l of water) at temperature 95-97 C for 2-3 c and immediately immerse in cold water or washed with running water. At such processing on the surface of the berries produces lots of tiny pores, through which when drying intensive goes moisture from the berries. As a rule, the grapes are dried in the sun within 15-20 days, but you can bake it in the oven at a temperature of 65-75 C. Prepared by the clusters of grapes are placed in a single layer on a sieve and dried, periodically turning. Dried berries are separated from the ridges and airs, and then placed the boxes, stand up to 2-3 days, after that is placed in banks and in order to avoid drying out of berries hermetically sealed.

 

Grapes in its own juice. For the preparation of this type of canned pick up large fleshy berries grapes, thoroughly wash them, give water to drain and to tightly packed in dry net banks. Grape juice is poured in enameled saucepan, add sugar (100 g on 1 l of juice), heated up to 90-95 C (up to full dissolution of sugar) and poured it full of berries banks. The temperature of juice when filling should be not above 30 C. Filled with banks covered boiled covers and set in a container with water, heated up to 30 C, for pasteurization. The pasteurization at 90 C for cans with a capacity of 0.5 liters - 10 min, 1l - 15 min. After processing banks hermetically sealed, turning upside down and cool.

 

Jam from grapes. For grape jam suitable varieties with large fleshy berries and firm the skin. Among them are Karaburnu, Agadai, Nimrang, Husayn, Chaush, Rapture, Rizamat firm, Talisman, from aromatic varieties - Muscat Hamburg, Muscat of Alexandria and others. Selected grapes are separated from crests, wash. Jam boiled in sugar syrup or boiled the grape juice.

Recipe 1 (on a sugar syrup). For cook sugar syrup per 1 kg of grapes take 1 kg sugar and 1 cup of water. First in a hot water dissolve the sugar, then the syrup is placed berries, kept him 30 minutes, cook on low heat. Before removing from the heat for 1 kg of berries add a spoon of lemon acid and powder, vanilla sugar or a few crystals of vanillin. During the cooking with the surface of the jam spoon remove scum, together with pop-up seeds. The cold jam poured into the net dry banks.

Recipe 2 (on a sugar syrup). Grapes are placed in an enamel basin, pour hot (40 C) sugar syrup 50% concentration (per 1 kg of grapes 600 grams of sugar, 600 ml water), kept for 8 hours and cook in 3 admission. Sugar, remaining after the preparation of the syrup, is divided into 3 parts and add to dry before the beginning of each cooking. On 1 kg of fruit only spend 1.2 kg sugar. After the first 8-hour exposure in the pelvis add 1/3 the remaining sugar and boiled mass in within 10-15 min. The temperature of boiling syrup at the end of the first brew should be 103 C. Then jam developed again within 8 hours. The second brew carry out the same way. The temperature of boiling syrup in the end of it, should be 104 C. Boiled mass again kept for 8 h. In the beginning of the 3-th of cooking add the last part of the sugar and boiled jam until ready. In the end of cooking, add vanillin (0.05 g per 1 kg jam) to improve the flavor. The temperature of boiling syrup in the end of the 3-th of cooking - 105 C. As hot as it is produced in the warmed-up dry banks, hermetically sealed and cooled. In the case of preparation of jam from the grapes of green in the water for syrup add a few leaves of cherry, to save the color of the berry.

Recipe 3 (grape juice). If jam cooked on the grape juice to him, to reduce the acidity of the boiling, you can add net mel without impurities of the rate of 50 g of chalk on a 1 liter of juice. After boiling the juice is filtered and boiled until the the amount of sugar in the juice will not increase in 6 times in comparison with the original. In boiled juice lowered berries and cook as described in the first recipe. The readiness of the jam of the wine is determined by the the following grounds: the jam can be removed from the fire, if a drop of syrup not spreads on the surface of the plates; if grapes are not emerge and become it is quite transparent.

 

Churchhela. Eastern sweetness, is prepared of condensed grape juice with the addition of flour, walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds and raisins. Churchhela has theme pleasant sour-sweet taste and a delicate flavor. Different high nutritional properties due to the large content of glucose and fructose (from 30 to 52 %), vegetable fats, proteins, organic acids (1,1-2 %), nitrogenous and phenolic substances, vitamins. Churchhela  prepare in Armenia and Georgia (kakhetian, imeretian, etc.). For the preparation of the Armenian churchhela  freshly extracted juice of white grape varieties process of the local lime ground (from the calculation of 250-300 g/dm3) with order to reduce the acidity and clarification. After sedimentation within 15 h juice is boiled in copper or enameled pots to the sugar content of 50 %. Then to cooled bekmes add wheat flour and bran and again boil before thickener. In the hot mixture immersed strung up on a thread the filling. The operation is repeated several times before sufficient the thickness of the layer of the mixture. For the filling use the kernel walnuts or forest nuts, almonds, raisins, dried fruits etc. Dry nuts cleaned from peel, blanched in boiling water and clean from the skin. Then halves walnuts cut into two parts (small nuts, raisins take a whole) and it is put on a thread in length of 45-55 cm. In the middle of the left vacant place in the 4-6 cm, to hang to dry. Dried in the sun during 5-6 days.

Kakheti churchhela  has also been working with using the juice of white varieties of grapes, and take and pressing automatic devices of the faction, the most rich extactive substances. The juice is boiled for 30 minutes, advocate for 10-12 hours. Clarified juice is filtered and evaporated in boilers up to the sugar content 30-40%. If necessary the acid reduction juice by adding chalk or marble flour (5 g/dm3). The concentrated juice advocate for 5-6 hours and merge with sediment. Then it is heated up up to 30 C, add wheat flour and fuel the fire at continuous stirring up the required condensation. The readiness of the masses test diving into her, filling, beaded on a thread. For better adhesion weight make interim brief dry within 2-3 hours, then dive repeat until the formation of the layer thickness 1.5-2 cm. Dried churchhela in the sun during 15-17 days. Then packed in crates, layers shift cloth and kept in a dry a cool place for 2 to 3 months for the aging. In the process of excerpts churchhela acquires a taste tone, close to the chocolate. For stuffing use walnuts, almonds, hazelnuts, raisins, kernel apricot, peach. The kernel is soaked in water, until I come down the skin, and then lightly boiled in low-sugar solution.

In addition to kakheti, Georgia prepare and other varieties churchhela. The technology of their preparation differs only by the composition of filling, the quality of the applied flour and mode of preparation of juice.

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Growing grapes