Powerful bush (Pict. 1) with
a high trunk and a well-developed crown can live and bear fruit
abundantly over a hundred years. Each year it grows new bark. Vine in
the first year of life is called a one-year, and starting next year it
is usually attributed to the long vines bush.
One-year vine has a peculiar
tubular structure (Pict. 2). In the middle of it is dead tissue - heart,
passing across the vine, but with a septum, called the diaphragm, which
are located on the nodes.
Node - a thickening of the
vines in the place where the leaf is formed. Part of the shoot between
two nodes is called the internode. Diaphragm protects the internode in
the event of damage to neighboring vine plot. In addition, it collects a
significant amount of spare nutrients. In the upper part of the shoot
are antennae, and at the bottom - 2-3 bunches. On the green shoots near
the eyes grow stepchildren. If at any node of an eye did not develop in
the spring, then the next year he turns into a "sleeping" or, as it is
called "resting" kidney, which can germinate in a few years and give a
green shoot on multi-year wood.
Pict. 2. Part of the vine shoots and its longitudinal section:
Eye consists of several grape
buds, most of the three. In the middle is a larger main bud on each side
- smaller substituent (Fig. 3). The kidney is the germ of the escape,
and under it is grounds kidneys - a special tissue, whose cells are
filled with nutrients. From the main buds in the spring of next year,
with clusters of shoot grows and develops only in a replacement if lost
home. In grades Isabella and Lydia often develop immediately 2 or even
all three kidneys, but the European grape varieties, this phenomenon is
rarely observed. To grow each year with clusters of new shoots on the
bush in the spring pruning vines leave last year. Growers call them
fruit or fruit arcs by arrows.
Pict. 3. The cut eye:
1 - replacing the kidneys; 2 - the main bud;
3 - scales.
The so-called dormant buds on
the two-year wood occur at those sites where at one time on the annual
shoots were the first 2-3 buds. These eyes do not usually grow if the
same annual shoots are perfectly safe located above the kidneys. In
cases where the home and replacing kidney did not germinate, they die in
the middle of the summer and fall. But this site is the base buds with a
variety of rays coming from the center to the periphery.
Over the next few years, the
kidney foundation is changing - greatly expands and grows in size. At
the same time, some rays are drawn in separate grounds kidneys, which
can give rise to green shoots. After 4-5 years, sometimes later, when it
begins to grow decrepit upper part of the vine, bears fruit several
times, the foundation of long-term kidney wood grows in the spring. It
begins to put pressure on the crust, forming a hump, but it appears the
rudiments of the leaves. Soon the mound becomes a normal green shoot.
Green shoots are formed from
many years of wood, are more vital functions, a very rapid growth,
exceeding several times the growth of shoots arising from buds of annual
vines. Shoots from long-term wood runners are substitutes, which
rejuvenated vines themselves in the wild and in cultivated plantations
of this process helps to rejuvenate the grower during trimming.
The leaves are used for the
synthesis of carbohydrate sugar and starch, which diverted to growth
points and places of formation of new tissues and organs. Of
carbohydrates in combination with nitrogen, phosphorus and other
elements are formed all the organic compounds necessary to build a plant
body. Carbohydrates are formed from carbon dioxide entering the leaf
from the air and water from the plant from the soil. With the
participation of solar energy and green substance, chlorophyll, they
connect and get the first product of synthesis - the sugar. The
intensity of this process depends on the degree of light leaves the sun.
If they shade each other or closed from the sun to other plants or
buildings, such leaves are useless in the bush, because they stop
photosynthesis. Moreover, taking away nutrients from leaves and other
organs, they become a kind of parasitic plant and drain. Therefore, a
good solar illumination of the leaves is one of the most important
conditions for normal development and fruiting shrub.
Leaves and in need of
moisture. If the flow of water to them is insufficient, photosynthesis
decreases or stops altogether. In dry years, when the soil is not enough
moisture in the berries accumulates little sugar, annual shoots poorly
mature, most of their growth is herbaceous, and wood and roots of the
long-term supply of nutrients is reduced. Therefore it is necessary to
monitor soil moisture and timely watering the bushes.
The flowers are collected in
grape buds, which are branched ridges. The flower consists of a pistil,
calyx and 5 stamens. Each stamen consists of a filament and anther
stamens containing pollen. During flowering the anthers burst, pollen
spills out and falls on the stigma of the pistil. Here it grows into a
tube, tissue grows into the pistil and ovule reaches, where
fertilization occurs. After that, seeds and berries begin to grow.
Unfertilized flowers fall off or give a very small pea-sized berries
(this phenomenon is called so hummocking).
The flowers of grapes are
male (with straight stamens and pistils weakly developed), functionally
female (with stamens, bent down, and normal pistils) and bisexual (with
straight stamens and pistils normal). Shrubs varieties with male flowers
do not give fruit. In bisexual flowers pollen germinates and is suitable
for fertilization. Functionally, female flowers have pollen do not
germinate and unsuitable for fertilization, so the bushes with flowers
to pollinate pollen types with bisexual flowers and plant them
The antennae of the vine are
modified buds. They have a grape plant as an extremely important
biological adaptation in forest conditions. It is through the grapevine
tendrils clinging to trees or other supports, and climbs up to the
sunlight. In without shtamb culture, used in industrial vineyards,
antennae, of course, lose their meaning. But in a wall and bowline
culture play a very important role.
Development of the vine
during the year has two periods: the period of rest - from leaf fall to
the so-called "weeping", and during the growing season - from the
beginning of the "weeping" before leaf fall.
During the period of rest,
then there is winter, the vine does not grow. But this time the bush
life never stops. It is changing the substances contained in the cells.
In late winter hive prepared for sap flow and growth.
The period of vegetation can
be divided into 6 phases:
1. Phase of "crying". In the
cut vine sap begins to flow, as the roots begin to vigorously suck water
from the soil. This phase usually occurs when the soil temperature rises
above 8 ° C and average daily air temperature is kept at a level no
lower than 10 ° C. The duration of the first phase depends on the
temperature conditions of spring. When cold weather "weeping" may stop
and start again with warming. Under favorable conditions, the bushes are
usually found in the phase of "crying" about 10-12 days. This phase ends
with the beginning of bud burst.
2. The growth phase of grape
stems. It begins at bud burst and lasts for 50 - 55 days - before
flowering. At this time the young shoots grow very quickly. If the
temperature drops below 15 ° C, the shoots can grow over night at 5-6
cm, and sometimes more. Bushes at this time needs a lot of nutrients and
water. So at the beginning of the 2nd phase of the bushes are usually
fed nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers and watering.
3. Phase of flowering. For
the normal flowering vine needed to air temperature was not below 15 °
C. Best flowering occurs at a temperature of 20-25 ° C. The duration of
this phase in different kinds of different - from 9 to 15 days.
4. Phase of berries continues
until the beginning of their maturation. At this time the berries are
almost reaching the normal size and they have completed the formation of
tissues and cells, which should accumulate nutrients, especially sugar.
5. Phase of maturation is
characterized by the skin of berries start to change color. In white
varieties of grapes, it turns yellow, with black and red - pink. Berry
softens its acidity decreases and the sugar content increases. At this
time, mature and seeds. Full maturity is reached while the sugar and
acid in them will not change. All varieties are divided according to
time of ripening at early, middle and late.
6. Phase ripening vine.
Ripening berries finishes, organic substances that are produced in the
leaves, go to the food vine. If after maturity is long leaves remain on
the bushes, vines ripen better, is more hardy. The early varieties of
the last phase of a longer, and they have an annual vine ripen well. The
process of aging is that the perennial and annual vines accumulate
nutrients, mainly starch and cell walls thicken.
characteristics are determined by the vine-agricultural requirements for