Growing grapes


Grape varieties and their characteristics

Table varieties of grapes

Technical varieties of grapes

The classification of grape varieties on the novelty

The choice of grape variety

Tab is vineyards

Biological characteristics of grapes

Inventory winegrower

Preparation for tab a vineyard

Planting of vines

The quality of seedlings grape

Formation and pruning vines

Guyot system

Wine glasshouse culture

Soil conditions and location

Planting grapes

Pruning and forming grapes

Pollination of grapes

Decimation grapes

Supplementary feeding and watering grapes

The harvest of grapes

Pests and diseases of grapes

The basic rules grafting grapes

Grafting of grapes eye or bud

Grafting of grapes in a split green shoots

Grafting of grapes to split trunk

Using last year's grape cuttings

Grafting of grapes green on green

The method of budding grapes

Kilchevanie of grapes

Care of grafted grape plants

Reproduction of the grape

Wintering grapes

Derivation of frost varieties of grapes

The use of grapes for landscaping

Planting grapes at the walls and arbors

Formation and pruning vines for greenery

Care of vineyards

Artificial pollination of grapes

Fertilizers for grapes

Recovering the vines from frost damage

Elimination of thinning grapes

Pruning of vine

Green operations in the Vineyard

Improving the quality of grapes

Methods of protection of grapes

Pests of grapevine

Diseases of the vine

Weed plants

Protection of vineyards from disease

Definition of diseases of grapes on the external signs of injury

Protecting grapes from pests and diseases

Characteristics of herbicides permitted for use

Precautions when working with pesticides

Collection and processing of grapes

Collection and storage of grapes

Grapes in cooking

Making a home of grape wine

Dry wines

Dessert wines

Manufacturing technology of sweet dessert of grape wine

The composition of grape wine

Diseases of the wine

Classification of wines

Table wines

Local wines

Quality wines

Wine tasting

Making wine from fruit and berries

Storage of wine

Culture of wine drinking

Culture of wine consumption

Site map

Biological characteristics of grapes

Powerful bush (Pict. 1) with a high trunk and a well-developed crown can live and bear fruit abundantly over a hundred years. Each year it grows new bark. Vine in the first year of life is called a one-year, and starting next year it is usually attributed to the long vines bush.

The structure of the vine

Pict. 1. The structure of the vine:

1 - Heel roots; 2 - underground shtamb; 3 - dew (surface) the roots; 4 - head bush; 5 - Sleeves; 6 - Horn; 7 - twig replacement; 8 - Arrow fruiting; 9 - annual shoots (twigs); 10 - stool shoots; 11 - fruit seed; 12 - fruitless flight; 13 - the fertile shoots; 14 - stepson

One-year vine has a peculiar tubular structure (Pict. 2). In the middle of it is dead tissue - heart, passing across the vine, but with a septum, called the diaphragm, which are located on the nodes.

Node - a thickening of the vines in the place where the leaf is formed. Part of the shoot between two nodes is called the internode. Diaphragm protects the internode in the event of damage to neighboring vine plot. In addition, it collects a significant amount of spare nutrients. In the upper part of the shoot are antennae, and at the bottom - 2-3 bunches. On the green shoots near the eyes grow stepchildren. If at any node of an eye did not develop in the spring, then the next year he turns into a "sleeping" or, as it is called "resting" kidney, which can germinate in a few years and give a green shoot on multi-year wood.

Part of the vine shoots and its longitudinal section:

Pict. 2. Part of the vine shoots and its longitudinal section:

1 - cirrus; 2 - internode; 3 - node; 4 - core; 5 - stepson; 6 - eye; 7 - leafstalk; 8 - the diaphragm

Eye consists of several grape buds, most of the three. In the middle is a larger main bud on each side - smaller substituent (Fig. 3). The kidney is the germ of the escape, and under it is grounds kidneys - a special tissue, whose cells are filled with nutrients. From the main buds in the spring of next year, with clusters of shoot grows and develops only in a replacement if lost home. In grades Isabella and Lydia often develop immediately 2 or even all three kidneys, but the European grape varieties, this phenomenon is rarely observed. To grow each year with clusters of new shoots on the bush in the spring pruning vines leave last year. Growers call them fruit or fruit arcs by arrows.

Pict. 3. The cut eye:

1 - replacing the kidneys; 2 - the main bud; 3 - scales.

The so-called dormant buds on the two-year wood occur at those sites where at one time on the annual shoots were the first 2-3 buds. These eyes do not usually grow if the same annual shoots are perfectly safe located above the kidneys. In cases where the home and replacing kidney did not germinate, they die in the middle of the summer and fall. But this site is the base buds with a variety of rays coming from the center to the periphery.

Over the next few years, the kidney foundation is changing - greatly expands and grows in size. At the same time, some rays are drawn in separate grounds kidneys, which can give rise to green shoots. After 4-5 years, sometimes later, when it begins to grow decrepit upper part of the vine, bears fruit several times, the foundation of long-term kidney wood grows in the spring. It begins to put pressure on the crust, forming a hump, but it appears the rudiments of the leaves. Soon the mound becomes a normal green shoot.

Green shoots are formed from many years of wood, are more vital functions, a very rapid growth, exceeding several times the growth of shoots arising from buds of annual vines. Shoots from long-term wood runners are substitutes, which rejuvenated vines themselves in the wild and in cultivated plantations of this process helps to rejuvenate the grower during trimming.

The leaves are used for the synthesis of carbohydrate sugar and starch, which diverted to growth points and places of formation of new tissues and organs. Of carbohydrates in combination with nitrogen, phosphorus and other elements are formed all the organic compounds necessary to build a plant body. Carbohydrates are formed from carbon dioxide entering the leaf from the air and water from the plant from the soil. With the participation of solar energy and green substance, chlorophyll, they connect and get the first product of synthesis - the sugar. The intensity of this process depends on the degree of light leaves the sun. If they shade each other or closed from the sun to other plants or buildings, such leaves are useless in the bush, because they stop photosynthesis. Moreover, taking away nutrients from leaves and other organs, they become a kind of parasitic plant and drain. Therefore, a good solar illumination of the leaves is one of the most important conditions for normal development and fruiting shrub.

Leaves and in need of moisture. If the flow of water to them is insufficient, photosynthesis decreases or stops altogether. In dry years, when the soil is not enough moisture in the berries accumulates little sugar, annual shoots poorly mature, most of their growth is herbaceous, and wood and roots of the long-term supply of nutrients is reduced. Therefore it is necessary to monitor soil moisture and timely watering the bushes.

The flowers are collected in grape buds, which are branched ridges. The flower consists of a pistil, calyx and 5 stamens. Each stamen consists of a filament and anther stamens containing pollen. During flowering the anthers burst, pollen spills out and falls on the stigma of the pistil. Here it grows into a tube, tissue grows into the pistil and ovule reaches, where fertilization occurs. After that, seeds and berries begin to grow. Unfertilized flowers fall off or give a very small pea-sized berries (this phenomenon is called so hummocking).

The flowers of grapes are male (with straight stamens and pistils weakly developed), functionally female (with stamens, bent down, and normal pistils) and bisexual (with straight stamens and pistils normal). Shrubs varieties with male flowers do not give fruit. In bisexual flowers pollen germinates and is suitable for fertilization. Functionally, female flowers have pollen do not germinate and unsuitable for fertilization, so the bushes with flowers to pollinate pollen types with bisexual flowers and plant them alternately.

The antennae of the vine are modified buds. They have a grape plant as an extremely important biological adaptation in forest conditions. It is through the grapevine tendrils clinging to trees or other supports, and climbs up to the sunlight. In without shtamb culture, used in industrial vineyards, antennae, of course, lose their meaning. But in a wall and bowline culture play a very important role.

Development of the vine during the year has two periods: the period of rest - from leaf fall to the so-called "weeping", and during the growing season - from the beginning of the "weeping" before leaf fall.

During the period of rest, then there is winter, the vine does not grow. But this time the bush life never stops. It is changing the substances contained in the cells. In late winter hive prepared for sap flow and growth.

The period of vegetation can be divided into 6 phases:

1. Phase of "crying". In the cut vine sap begins to flow, as the roots begin to vigorously suck water from the soil. This phase usually occurs when the soil temperature rises above 8 ° C and average daily air temperature is kept at a level no lower than 10 ° C. The duration of the first phase depends on the temperature conditions of spring. When cold weather "weeping" may stop and start again with warming. Under favorable conditions, the bushes are usually found in the phase of "crying" about 10-12 days. This phase ends with the beginning of bud burst.

2. The growth phase of grape stems. It begins at bud burst and lasts for 50 - 55 days - before flowering. At this time the young shoots grow very quickly. If the temperature drops below 15 ° C, the shoots can grow over night at 5-6 cm, and sometimes more. Bushes at this time needs a lot of nutrients and water. So at the beginning of the 2nd phase of the bushes are usually fed nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers and watering.

3. Phase of flowering. For the normal flowering vine needed to air temperature was not below 15 ° C. Best flowering occurs at a temperature of 20-25 ° C. The duration of this phase in different kinds of different - from 9 to 15 days.

4. Phase of berries continues until the beginning of their maturation. At this time the berries are almost reaching the normal size and they have completed the formation of tissues and cells, which should accumulate nutrients, especially sugar.

5. Phase of maturation is characterized by the skin of berries start to change color. In white varieties of grapes, it turns yellow, with black and red - pink. Berry softens its acidity decreases and the sugar content increases. At this time, mature and seeds. Full maturity is reached while the sugar and acid in them will not change. All varieties are divided according to time of ripening at early, middle and late.

6. Phase ripening vine. Ripening berries finishes, organic substances that are produced in the leaves, go to the food vine. If after maturity is long leaves remain on the bushes, vines ripen better, is more hardy. The early varieties of the last phase of a longer, and they have an annual vine ripen well. The process of aging is that the perennial and annual vines accumulate nutrients, mainly starch and cell walls thicken.

These biological characteristics are determined by the vine-agricultural requirements for growing grapes.

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