Growing grapes

 

 

 

Grape varieties and their characteristics

Table varieties of grapes

Technical varieties of grapes

The classification of grape varieties on the novelty

The choice of grape variety

 

Tab is vineyards

Biological characteristics of grapes

Inventory winegrower

Preparation for tab a vineyard

Planting of vines

The quality of seedlings grape

Formation and pruning vines

Guyot system

 

Wine glasshouse culture

Soil conditions and location

Planting grapes

Pruning and forming grapes

Pollination of grapes

Decimation grapes

Supplementary feeding and watering grapes

The harvest of grapes

Pests and diseases of grapes

 

The basic rules grafting grapes

Grafting of grapes eye or bud

Grafting of grapes in a split green shoots

Grafting of grapes to split trunk

Using last year's grape cuttings

Grafting of grapes "green on green'

The method of budding grapes

Kilchevanie of grapes

Care of grafted grape plants

Reproduction of the grape

Wintering grapes

Derivation of frost varieties of grapes

 

The use of grapes for landscaping

Planting grapes at the walls and arbors

Formation and pruning vines for greenery

 

Care of vineyards

Artificial pollination of grapes

Fertilizers for grapes

Recovering the vines from frost damage

Elimination of thinning grapes

Pruning of vine

Green operations in the Vineyard

Improving the quality of grapes

 

Methods of protection of grapes

Pests of grapevine

Diseases of the vine

Weed plants

Protection of vineyards from disease

Definition of diseases of grapes on the external signs of injury

Protecting grapes from pests and diseases

Characteristics of herbicides permitted for use

Precautions when working with pesticides

 

Collection and processing of grapes

Collection and storage of grapes

Grapes in cooking

 

Making a home of grape wine

Dry wines

Dessert wines

Manufacturing technology of sweet dessert of grape wine

The composition of grape wine

Diseases of the wine

Classification of wines

Table wines

Local wines

Quality wines

Wine tasting

Making wine from fruit and berries

Storage of wine

 

Culture of wine drinking

Culture of wine consumption

 

Formation and pruning vines for greenery

On the 2nd year after planting vines begin to form. In the spring set the pillars on which later will be placed vines. If the device supports delayed and they are not made at the outset, it worsens the conditions of development, shoot growth, can not give them the right direction and generally makes it difficult to care for the shrubs. The material supports necessary to prepare for the fall. For this purpose you can use the old iron pipes or rods, if they paint, they can serve as long without repairs. Suitable as wooden beams and square thin round wood: colored, they can stand for 8-10 years. Damage probably being that part of the support, which is under the ground and at ground level. Therefore, the underground portion of pipe or wooden bars recommended cement. For this purpose, the ground hole punch scrap at a depth of 60 cm and unfold it so that after installing the pipe or wooden beams remained slit width of 2-2.5 cm gap is filled with lime mortar of cement and sand. Small amount of material, and support will be much longer and be much more stable.

When the device is installed in galleries bearing the cyrillic letter "П" in width and 2-3 m in height 2,25-2,50 m at a distance of 4-5 m from each other. Reliance on these pull wire for tying the vines at a distance of 70-80 cm a line from another.

Support for the pavilions set according to its configuration and size, as well as the form of planned overlap. If you plan to build a large pavilion, the poles can be laid out piece of stone or brick, and the top cover made of thick logs.

For the culture of grapes wall pull trellis on the wall. In the wall of spikes pierce the holes in the outer end. Crutches should take such a length that they clung, did not stagger and not falling out (it is necessary to consider the material from which constructed the building). The outer part of the crutch should serve at 10-12 cm, the horizontal distance between the spikes along the walls - 4,5 m, height - 1m. In opening the outer ends of crutches and then pass through the wire pull the horizontal lines. Thus, the distance between the lines of wire will be 1 m. Between the windows spikes hammered into the edge of pier.

The device supports up to finish the bud, which usually begins in early April.

When growing grapes in the galleries for the 2nd year after planting bushes in late March release of land, where they were sheltered for the winter. Last year, annual vines carefully examined, of them choose the best and pruned it to 5-6 buds. All other vines are cut off completely. At the beginning of growth, when the shoots reached 5-10 cm, making "green fragment" that is, remove the excess and the weaker ones. First of all, remove the doubles, that is, out of every two shoots growing out of one eye, breaks off one the worst. Very often, from the base of a bush near the ground, the shoots grow, "broom." In such cases, leave the 2.1 the best escape, the rest breaks off. A total of 3.5 shoots bush reserve. As their carefully tie up the supporting structure.

On the 2nd year after planting, the main task - to grow on bushes strong vines, of which at least one must have a good 1.5-2 m ripe for the formation of stem wood bush. Must make every effort to ensure that the continued successful development of roots. Strong growth of shoots suggests that the roots are growing well. These results can be achieved in a timely irrigation, fertilizing, garter of green shoots and the fight against mildew.

In the fall, after leaf fall, two years of bush vines untie from the support, gently bends to the ground and added dropwise. This is done because some runners must serve for the formation of multi-barrel and must be reliably protected from cold, dry, cold winds, and other adversities. If the formation of stem damage, escape, would be adversely affected in the future on the development of a bush.

During the third year to raise the trunk and main branch. In early spring the bushes open, that is exempt from the land, which they to bury for the winter, and examine all the shoots. Of these, choose the best, the rest are cut off at the base. Left to shoot pruned to a height of arbor (if ripe wood is not enough, then a little later), and tied up vertically. At the beginning of bud make the first fragment. Bay at the height of the lower buds to 60 cm shoot down, the next 2-3 leaves, and then breaks off another 4-5 buds located above, then again leave 2-3. If the vine gets to the last wire, over the top of the left kidney shot down 2-3, but two uppermost leaves. Results on the bush should grow about 10 shoots. With this amount of growth they will have a strong, good aging timber.

2-3 weeks after the first fragments make a second, because at the sites where they were shot down by the kidneys begin to grow shoots of replacement. Sometimes you have to do, and third fragment.

Growing green shoots should be carefully tied up, or they can break wind. During the garters they give a horizontal position, while the upper bend in overlapping arbors.

On the 4th year of formation at spring pruning is left on the bush five shoots. Abandoned vines pruned so that they had a length of 100-120 cm then shoots tied up horizontally, and the top folded over and tied up to the overlap of the arbor. This year, the bush can be left for 30-40 green shoots. Weakly growing shoots, especially those whose growth slowed in the spring, you need to break off.

On the 5th year of the formation of a fully completed. On the branches of the stem selected for 2 good escape - one closer to the trunk, the other at a distance of 50-70 cm - and pruned to 10-12 buds, and then tie them in that order, as shown in Fig. 1. These shoots are a fruit of the arc. On the 5th year of bush provide a significant burden - 80-100 green shoots.

Vertical cordon

Pict. 1. Vertical cordon

 

All these are the rules of formation of clusters should not apply a template. In several cases are possible and sometimes needed certain deviations. For example, at a higher pedestal advisable to make more branches. At high trellis (no roof) will not be vines, bent on blocking. Bush can not have one trunk and two or three. At each branch can not keep two fruit-arc, and 3 or 1, depending on the strength of shoot growth.

Since forming the bushes for a device of galleries and pavilions, a somewhat different form shall bushes near the walls, where the vines climb to a height of 2 nd floor, and the stems and shoots have placed between the windows around door, columns, etc. It is desirable, of course, that a boundary-bush, as well as a growing at the gallery, was a barrel, but it is rarely possible to carry out, often have to form a 2 or 3 of the stem, consistent with the location of window openings.

Consider a specific example. Assume that the bush upset at the house wall between the door and window (Pict. 2). this case it is expedient to form a bush in the following way.

On the 2nd year after planting in the bush should be left to the green shoots of 4.5, which with good care can grow to 3-4 m. The figure shows a two-year bush in autumn after leaf fall.

Trim the bush for the second year of formation

Pict. 2. Trim the bush for the second year of formation

 

The following year, in spring it leaves the 3 most powerful rod in a position, as shown in Pict. 3. One tie rod vertically on the right side, the other - with his left hand, and a third - at the door. When the shoot out buds, make fragment. Next to each line of wire are left with 2-3 buds, the rest are removed. The figure shows the arrangement of blossoming buds left on the vine. In sites where wreckage is made, after some time of renal replacement shoots begin to develop. They carefully removed as they become available.

Trim the bush in the third year of formation

Pict. 3. Trim the bush in the third year of formation

(near each set of wires left kidney 2-3, downed the rest):

1 - Sites with whipped by the kidneys, and 2 - the remaining kidney

 

In the autumn bush has the same form as shown in Pict. 4. By this time vertically Strapon vines turn into young stems, and from off of their annual shoots in the following year formed a branch or arm. In autumn cut the bush is not necessary, but next spring on the trunks at the level of each line wire on the top left one by one, to the best escape, the rest are cut off. Left shoots horizontally to a wire tie, and the top flight - vertically.

Trim the bush in the third year of formation in the autumn

Pict. 4. Trim the bush in the third year of formation in the autumn

 

This completes the formation of a bush on the ground floor. Next crown shape on the 2nd floor as well as on the ground. On the 3rd or 4th year of the bush comes into fruition, and shoots grow slowly, and therefore the formation of clusters above a few delays.

With such forming should not raise the vines more than half of the 2nd floor, because the vines with low-lying branches, during the spring sap flow - "crying" - difficult to sap flow to the upper vines. The reason is that's what: in the spring pruning branches to make the cuts through which implies the sap, which delays its rise up the trunk. Therefore, the kidney at the bottom of a bush blooming much earlier. Earlier they also contribute to the blooming of the temperature conditions are always better near the ground than above. Young shoots are beginning to pull nutrients and abundant spring sap flow ceases at this time. The buds at the top are at a disadvantage: they bloom sluggishly formed shoots do not grow and bear fruit slightly. This uneven development of clusters may lead to the fact that the upper vines dry up.

If bush planted near the wall high-rise building and vines must be raised very high, such as a balcony 3rd or 4th floor, then up to the balcony of the barrel must be completely stripped, no lower branches of it are not allowed. Form such shrubs as follows.

On the 2nd year after planting grape seedlings from the balcony or in any other place where the scheduled trunk, lower the wire to the site and attach it to a stake driven into the ground. To choose the best bush vines and tied to a wire lowered, the rest are cut off. During all the lower bud breaks off, leaving the top 3.4. Produced from these buds shoots clinging tendrils, climb up the wire. Sometimes, especially at the beginning of growth, they need to tie up.

In the spring of third year in a bush is left alone, the best flight and tied to the wire, cut off the rest. As in the previous year, while all the lower buds knock, and the upper 3.4 left. The resulting shoots continue to climb over the wire.

The following year, 4th year still the same (Pict. 5). Usually with good care vine for the 4th year after planting comes to third, and sometimes up to the 4th floor.

Trim the bush in the fourth year of formation in the spring after cutting and the garter

Pict. 5. Trim the bush in the fourth year of formation

in the spring after cutting and the garter:

1 - shaft, 2 - branching stems 3 - shoots for the continuation of the trunk

 

The formation of the crown bush near the balcony is the same way as in the bowers. In the first 2-3 years for trimming, debris and garters young stem, grown to a considerable height, the upper end of the wire and untie from stock or specially tied a rope is lowered so that the trunk lay on the ground or dropped to the ground floor windows. Once the necessary work is done, pull the wire again. Young grapevine is flexible, so no need to fear that the barrel will break.

Throughout the life of the bush, raised to a height of 3-5th Floors, care must be taken not to grow shoots from dormant buds. These shoots soon after their appearance breaks off. By the end of a light pole, it is best to bamboo rod, attach a wire hook. This device can reach any part of the trunk from the ground or from ground floor windows. Debris needs to be done when the shoots are grown no more than 5 centimeters.

For green lampposts, pillars, as well as to create pyramids of vines is very suitable Forming olehnari (Pict. 6). To create a pyramid on the third year after planting in the spring on a bush choose the best flight and the rest is cut at the base, and left tied up vertically to a stake with crosspiece on top. When the shoots begin to grow, the top 6.5 left, and breaks off all the lower. Raised top runners tie to the bars horizontally crosspiece. In the spring of next year on a bush reserve 4.5 shoots from which will be formed branches of the barrel, and cut them into 7-8 holes and then tied to the bars crosspiece. In this form the bush ends. Green shoots that grow on the branches of the stem, hang down, while they are covered with clusters of fruiting.

Forming olehnari

Pict. 6. Forming olehnari

 

Formation olehnari bush for planting a lamppost in the same way as the next stake. When planting grapes column (Pict. 7) it is desirable that the vine twine around it to a great height, branching stem form every 50-70 cm, which at this distance is left after bud shoots and the other breaks off.

Forming clusters olehnari high piers

Pict. 7. Forming clusters olehnari high piers

 

As you can see, during the growth of large near-wall and bushes bowline main method of forming the trunks and branches of a blossoming buds or fragments of green shoots at the beginning of their growth. It takes special attention, because in this business often make mistakes. Grow by two to three years or bush vines strong 6.5, leave them to form a trunk. This is the first mistake: one should not leave the bush for more than 3 logs. These vines tied up in the desired position, while the growth of buds and young shoots fragment do not produce. This is the second error, it leads to an overload of the bush. If, for example, on a two-year or three-year bush has 5 long vines, 2-3 m, then each can develop 25-30 kidneys, therefore, only on the bush to grow shoots and bunches of 120-150. Young bush will not sustain the load and "sit." Formation of a bush delayed for several years, and in case of an overload it will lag behind in growth and in subsequent years, most Forming generally will not work.

Tentatively we can give the following scheme for increasing the number of shoots in the formation of large clusters with 2-3 trunks: the first year of planting - 3-4 escape, Year 2 - 5-6, 3rd - 25-30, 4th year - about 100 shoots in the future they may increase the number depending on the area occupied by a bush, and care. On the near-wall normal and bushes bowline number of shoots ranging from 150 to 250.

On the vines can not leave all the vines have grown up in the previous year. If you do not trim, the green shoots will grow poorly, the clusters are obtained small berries are small and sour. Trimming the number of regulated fruit arcs and holes.

On the trunk branch can be 1, 2 or 3 fruit-arc, and sometimes more, depending on the strength and growth of shoots. If the green shoots grow very strongly and are very thick, it indicates a lack of load bush green shoots. In this case it is necessary for pruning in the spring of next year, leaving more fruit pruning arcs or extended for a few holes, for example, instead of 8-10 to leave 10-12. If green shoots are growing weak, it shows that the bush is overloaded. In this case, you have next year to reduce the number of arcs or fruit to make them shorter.

Especially dangerous overloading of the bushes. If excessive thickening shoots shade one another, the leaves are badly perform their functions, shoots and grapes do not get enough to eat, deplete stocks of nutrients in a multi-year wood. With a very strong annual vines are overloaded by the autumn grass, not matured. In this state they can not withstand even a minor cold. Exhausted long-term timber also loses its resistance to frost. Severe overloading the bush for several years can lead to complete loss of its aerial parts. With the right the same load, thanks to the multi-barrel and, hence, a large supply of multi-year wood, wall and bowline bushes have good frost resistance, which increases with age.

Ways of cutting the big tall vines developed and tested by centuries of long practical experience. As examples how to trim the bushes in forming such as magyaari (Georgian), whose trunk was put on the tree, and the vines are located on the branches, Don Forming with trunks raised on high poles (Torquay), and went down vines, the Moldovan bowl (Pict. 8). When pruning a bush to select the best fruit shoots arcs and systematically rejuvenate the ends of the branches of the stem-shoots substitutes, formed by years of timber.

Moldovan cup

Pict. 8. Moldovan cup

 

On Pict. 9 a is represented by an arc of fruit in its first year of fruiting in autumn. When pruning in the spring of the 2nd year of her chosen one of the best shoots, located closer to the ground, and beside him produce section, as shown in the figure. If the best will not be the first and the 2nd or 3rd, then the previous cut at the base. Left to escape is a fruit arc, which shoots grow fruit, and the first 2-3 buds do not develop normally. By the fall of fruit arc takes the form shown in Fig. 9b. It, in turn, choose the best escape is located closer to the ground, and make trimming as well as in the previous year.

Pruning of fruit arc

Pict. 9. Pruning of fruit arc:

a - after the first year of fruiting; b - after the second year of fruiting (the cut shown in dash)

 

This is repeated for 4-5 years, resulting in a branch of the stem gradually lengthens. On 4-5th year, when the green shoots begin to grow fruit arcs and weaker at the end of the stem branches formed a few wounds from pruning, it rejuvenates the escape-substitute, formed by 4, 5-year-old wood (Pict. 10). Rejuvenation of the produce immediately, but after one year of fruiting shoots, substitute (Pict. 11).

On the new fruit arc trim do the same as in previous years. After about the same time, that is, 4-5 years, once again rejuvenate branch trunk shoot-substitute.

Rejuvenation escape, substitute

Pict. 10. Rejuvenation escape, substitute:

a - 1 to spring pruning (the cut shown in dash);

b - 2 escape-substitute, bent on fruit after spring pruning of the arc

 

Rejuvenation after one year of fruiting shoots, substitute

Pict. 11. Rejuvenation after one year of fruiting shoots, substitute

(numeral 1 denotes the fertile shoot-substitute):

a - the same as in Pict. 32b, but the fall (location of sections shown in bars),

b - location of the fruit after cutting edges

 

Before trimming European and Central Asian grape varieties need to check whether the eyes are not damaged by frosts. To do this, in March, a few vines, shrubs at different heights of the lower buds are browsing 15-16. When the incision of the damaged eye can see blackening, is found in a healthy bright green. By the number of healthy and damaged buds determine how to extend the trimming. For example, if viewed out of 10 eyes lost 2, then every arc of a fruit to cut into 2-3 eye longer, if it turned out, that lost half of eyes scanned, the number of arcs of fruit should be increased by 2 times.

In other winter annual vines are severely damaged by frost. Then in the spring of trimming to do. When from long-term timber grown shoots and reached lengths of 25-30 cm, on a bush cut dry grapevine and then make the fragment, leaving those runners who want to correct forming. During the summer the bushes are completely restored.

Multidecks bowline and vines grow very well and seem to tolerate the winter hardships, if the summer in the soil is not lack of moisture. Of soil moisture should be monitored closely especially in the 2nd half of summer when winter moisture reserves are depleted, and rainfall is not enough. Just at this time, vines require much water for the processes of ripening crops, vines woodiness and sediment nutrient storage in a multi-year wood and roots. If water is scarce, the vines and woody badly as a result of the onset of frosts strongly damaged. So, you need watering.

Watering to a period of growth and early spring. In the summer watering should be implemented as needed, depending on how dried out the land. After each summer watering should always loosen the soil, preventing the formation of a crust. After heavy rains also need to loosen the top layer of soil.

-Irrigation set depending on soil and microclimate conditions. The general rule in the spring and summer, the soil under the bushes should be kept moderately moist to a depth of 1 meter.

Subject to the whole complex of cultural practices that are described here, a trim or a bowline bush can give the grape harvest more than 50 kilograms.

After the harvest makes digging deep without breaking the lumps of earth with a rake. Before digging manure.

In the autumn deciduous vine leaves should be raking in piles and burned, as in the spring they can be a source of infection by fungal diseases, and the ashes scattered to the bushes.

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Выращивание винограда

 

Growing grapes