Growing grapes


Grape varieties and their characteristics

Table varieties of grapes

Technical varieties of grapes

The classification of grape varieties on the novelty

The choice of grape variety

Tab is vineyards

Biological characteristics of grapes

Inventory winegrower

Preparation for tab a vineyard

Planting of vines

The quality of seedlings grape

Formation and pruning vines

Guyot system

Wine glasshouse culture

Soil conditions and location

Planting grapes

Pruning and forming grapes

Pollination of grapes

Decimation grapes

Supplementary feeding and watering grapes

The harvest of grapes

Pests and diseases of grapes

The basic rules grafting grapes

Grafting of grapes eye or bud

Grafting of grapes in a split green shoots

Grafting of grapes to split trunk

Using last year's grape cuttings

Grafting of grapes green on green

The method of budding grapes

Kilchevanie of grapes

Care of grafted grape plants

Reproduction of the grape

Wintering grapes

Derivation of frost varieties of grapes

The use of grapes for landscaping

Planting grapes at the walls and arbors

Formation and pruning vines for greenery

Care of vineyards

Artificial pollination of grapes

Fertilizers for grapes

Recovering the vines from frost damage

Elimination of thinning grapes

Pruning of vine

Green operations in the Vineyard

Improving the quality of grapes

Methods of protection of grapes

Pests of grapevine

Diseases of the vine

Weed plants

Protection of vineyards from disease

Definition of diseases of grapes on the external signs of injury

Protecting grapes from pests and diseases

Characteristics of herbicides permitted for use

Precautions when working with pesticides

Collection and processing of grapes

Collection and storage of grapes

Grapes in cooking

Making a home of grape wine

Dry wines

Dessert wines

Manufacturing technology of sweet dessert of grape wine

The composition of grape wine

Diseases of the wine

Classification of wines

Table wines

Local wines

Quality wines

Wine tasting

Making wine from fruit and berries

Storage of wine

Culture of wine drinking

Culture of wine consumption

Site map

Fertilizers for grapes

For growth and fruiting grape plant needs a lot of nutrients. Each year, the harvest and the vine, which is removed during pruning, the bushes, "away" from a large number of soil nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, sulfur and other elements. If this loss is not compensated, then such a depleted soil the plants develop poorly, cease to bear fruit, start to suffer greatly from adverse environmental conditions, particularly from frost.

During the growing season of the vine in need of some nutritional changes. In nitrogen, for example, the plant needs most in the spring, before flowering, when there is a strong growth of green shoots and leaves. In the summer, when the shoots and leaves begin to grow weaker, the demand for nitrogen is significantly reduced, and in autumn, when growth stops, it becomes quite insignificant. Therefore, foliar nitrogen fertilizer needs to be done in the spring, during bud break or at the beginning of the growth of green shoots, as well as in the 1st half of the summer. In the 2nd half of the summer and fall feeding nitrogen fertilizer is not only not helpful, but even harmful, because it can cause undue increased growth of green shoots that will hinder the maturing of the wood.

Phosphorus is needed for the development of all of the bush, but most of all for the development of reproductive organs - blossoms, berries, seeds and buds. Particularly sharp increases the need for phosphorus to the beginning of flowering. Therefore, fertilizer phosphorus fertilizers should be done in the early phases of flowering and repeat it in summer.

Need a vine for potassium increases by autumn. Potassium plays an important role in the maturation and preparation for overwintering plants. Therefore, in late summer or early autumn vines give fertilizer potash.

Among other elements, which play an important role in plant life, it should be noted calcium, magnesium, iron and sulfur. Calcium accumulates in old trunks and their long-term ramifications. The need for it is associated with the neutralization of oxalic acid and the plant cell wall thickening. Magnesium and iron are needed for the green substance of the leaves - chlorophyll magnesium is included in its composition, and iron is necessary for its formation. Sulfur is a part of some proteins.

In most soils of Ukraine calcium is enough and make it under the grape plants is not necessary. Excess calcium is harmful to the vine. Sulfur into soil in sufficient quantities with other fertilizers, mainly with ammonium sulfate and superphosphate. Magnesium and iron in the soil is usually sufficient, but if necessary, to make their best in a foliar feeding.

To supply the vine needed minerals: sodium, silicon, aluminum, boron, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, cobalt, iodine and others. They are called micronutrients because they are consumed by plants in very small quantities. All of these substances in the soil is sufficient, but some of them - boron, zinc, manganese - should sometimes added as foliar feeding.

Fertilizers can be divided into organic and mineral. The most common organic fertilizer is animal manure, which contains all the necessary nutrients for plants and thus is called a complete fertilizer. Of the mineral there are few.

Ammonium sulphate or ammonium sulphate - a nitrogenous fertilizer, which is a grayish crystalline powder, which contains about 20% nitrogen. Ammonium sulphate dissolves readily in water. After using the plant (ammonium nitrogen) in soil is part of the fertilizer, sulfuric acid, which is connected to the soil with lime to form insoluble gypsum.

Ammonium nitrate or ammonium nitrate - is also a nitrogen fertilizer, which is a coarse white salt. Ammonium nitrate contains about 35% nitrogen. There are no connections that would remain in the soil after nitrogen uptake by plant roots. Ammonium nitrate can be used on all soils.

Superphosphate - phosphate fertilizer contains from 17 to 20% phosphoric acid. It is derived from phosphate, crushed and treated with sulfuric acid. Under the influence of sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid is released free, water-soluble and readily available for absorption roots. The fresher the superphosphate, the better it works. For prolonged storage the free water-soluble phosphoric acid, superphosphate is gradually transformed into an insoluble form, is almost not absorbed by plant roots.

The chemical industry produces agranular superphosphate, which gives better results than powdered. The fact that the free phosphoric acid of superphosphate in the soil is subject to change and is transformed into a compound that is poorly taken up by roots. The finer grain of superphosphate applied to soils, the more likely it free phosphoric acid binds the soil and becomes unavailable to the roots of grapes. Conversely, the larger granules of superphosphate, the longer the phosphoric acid may be absorbed by plant roots. This is the advantage of granulated superphosphate. The granules are stuck particles of superphosphate. Next to each pellet, soil, creates a zone rich in soluble phosphoric acid, which is the roots of the vine is easy to learn.

Good mix granulated superphosphate and manure into the soil to make the mixture, without mixing with the ground. This further prevents the absorption of phosphoric acid from the soil. In addition, around the granules in the soil conditions are favorable for the growth of microorganisms that help roots absorb phosphoric acid.

It should be noted also that when feeding, when the soil is made in the form of fertilizer solution, phosphoric acid, superphosphate is left unprotected, causing it to rapidly binds with soil. The action of feeding in these cases, short-lived. It is therefore recommended to make the solution more deeply, closer to the roots and in small doses, but more often.

As potash fertilizer is often used with potassium chloride, sold in stores. It contains about 50% potassium oxide. But the fertilizer big drawback: it contains chlorine, which, after absorption by plants of potassium remains in the soil, the presence of chlorine in large quantities is harmful to plants. Therefore it is better to apply as potash fertilizer ash. It contains not only a lot of potassium, but also a lot of phosphorus. The best ash obtained from sunflower husks. It contains from 24 to 40% of potassium and approximately 4% of the phosphorus and other nutrients. Sunflower husks can get in the right quantity at the creameries plants. The ash must be stored in a dry place, as the nutrients are in it to soluble compounds and, if the ash is in the rain easily washed out of it.

Some people believe that by applying fertilizers, manure can be dispensed with. This is wrong. Application of manure in combination with mineral fertilizers contributes to more efficient use of nutrients and fertilizers reduces the absorption of the soil. Manure in the soil creates favorable conditions for microbial growth, the roots of vines to help absorb nutrients fertilizer.

In order to fully ensure the vines with nutrients, you need to follow a certain system of fertilizers and fertilizing. Fertilizer in the soil pose the main supply of nutrients, and dressings during the growing season increase soil nutrition bushes with the substances that are one time or another most needed plant.

Fertilizers and fertilizing system aimed at increasing the fruitfulness of shrubs and vigorous, to enhance their cold hardiness. This can be achieved if the spring in the soil will be sufficient assimilable nitrogen, and during the summer - phosphorus. In the autumn bush food should be increased in potassium, during the same summer should be feeding micronutrients.

Fertiliser applied to the soil under the vines, it is necessary to plug the deep, as the bulk of fibrous roots at a depth of 15-20 to 30-35 cm Therefore, the main fertilizer is recommended to bring a deep digging, fertilizing and fill in the grooves in liquid form and by means of irrigation advance or as they say, "wash" them into the lower layers.

The best fertilizer is manure. It contains everything you need for soil nutrition of the vines, and enriches the soil with humus and makes it loose. The nutrients contained in manure, digested by the plant gradually, as their expansion in 3-4 years. Recommended to apply manure in the autumn in a mixture with fertilizers at the rate of 5 kg of manure, 100 g of superphosphate, 100 g of ash and 50 g of ammonium sulfate per 1 m2. Immediately after its distribution over the surface of the soil makes digging deep. Fertilize with manure should be a time in 3 years. Under vines is recommended to bring a fresh dung The straw, especially horses. Manure from the greenhouses for this purpose does not work, since there is usually a lot of grubs, and they gnaw through underground stems vines.

Every spring do Fertilizer fossa. To do this, prepare a mixture of manure (10 parts) and superphosphate (part 1). Dig a hole in the middle between two bushes depth of 30-35 cm in width shovel. At the bottom drop out of a shovel full of cooked mixture and fertilizing, without mixing it with earth, bury, and tramp. The end of the roots during the growth of their way to the fertilizing mixture and absorb the phosphoric acid.

Of great importance are feeding. They should be combined with irrigation: the first feeding of doing during bud break, the second - after flowering, the third - before the ripening of berries. As a means of fertilizing can be used slurry, poultry manure or superphosphate with ammonium nitrate.

Slurry is prepared from fresh cow manure at the rate of 0.5 kg per 1 m2. Manure diluted in water 2 times a cemented pit or vat, cover tightly with a lid and allow to ferment. Then, the fermented sediment was diluted with water at a ratio of 1:20 and dispensed under the bushes at the rate of 0.5 buckets of water per 1 m2. Then make watering.

Poultry manure contains many nutrients. Need to use it with caution, as if above the threshold it can cause harm. Make it the basis of 50 g dry weight per 1 m2. Poultry manure was diluted 2-fold with water and allowed to stand for 2 weeks. 0.1 liters of slurry is diluted in a bucket and poured into the bushes per 1 m2. Then watered.

It is important that the bushes were enhanced nitrogen nutrition in the first days of root uptake of soil solutions. To do this, after autumn digging of the soil surface scatter ammonium sulphate or ammonium nitrate at the rate of 50 g/m2. The solutions of these salts is very easy to move in the soil, and the autumn-winter precipitation, "washed" them in the spring in the area of ​​the greatest mass of roots of the shrub. On light sandy soils make nitrogen fertilizer in the fall is not recommended because the solutions of fertilizers on these soils will be washed away in layers below the main mass of the absorbing roots.

Solutions for dressing fertilizers are prepared as follows. At the first feeding takes 100 grams of superphosphate and 50 g of ammonium nitrate per 1 m2. These fertilizers are applied as a solution. In the evening portion of superphosphate measured poured into the barrel and pour a measured amount of water, mix well and leave overnight. On the morning of the same barrel of dissolved ammonium nitrate. The solution was then diluted with water. In the calculation we must proceed from the proportions of 10 kg of superphosphate fill 10 buckets of water, add 5 kg in the morning nitrate. Then, 1 liter of solution was diluted with 9 liters of water and pour this amount of 1 m2. In the 2nd and 3rd feeding instead of nitrate added wood ash from the same calculation, that is 50 g/m2. During feeding is recommended to apply borax at a rate of 1 g/m2.

Watering is necessary in the day, when done feeding. Fertilizer with the water penetrate the lower layers of soil, where the bulk of the roots. Without watering most of the nutrients remain in the upper and benefit from them will be much less.

That the water is better distributed over the surface without dripping and evenly soaked into the soil, you need to prepare a series along the groove depth of 15 cm and a width of 40 cm after feeding groove is filled with water at the rate of 10-15 buckets on the bush. Water can be bring up car carry water or let tap water overlap with hoses. Once the water is absorbed, the grooves fall asleep. Then, the surface leveled with a rake.

For foliar feeding grapes recommended spray the leaves aqueous extract of superphosphate with the addition of trace elements in solution. Nitrogen fertilizer (ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate), even in small concentrations, burn grape leaves.

The solution was prepared as follows. On a bucket of water (10 L) take 50 g of superphosphate, and leave to infuse for a day. During this time, the infusion to a few times to mix. The real water (which becomes yellowish) drained so that sediment remains in the tank, and then add to it borax or boric acid at the rate of 2 g per 10 liters. There also can add 2 g of manganese sulfate, 5 g of ferrous iron (Mohr's salt) and 1 g of zinc sulfate.

The resulting solution was poured into a hand sprayer and sprayed with any of them bushes. We need to try to mortar fell on the underside of the leaf, as on this side of the nutrients absorbed better than from the top. Atomizer spray to drive smoothly, make sure that the liquid does not hit twice in the same place.

Foliar feeding is best done in cloudy weather. Particularly good results are obtained from a feed at a time when the night falls copious dew. This promotes better absorption of nutrients in the leaves. Foliar application made before flowering and during the ripening berries.

Irrigation in the South of Ukraine has the greatest impact on increasing yields. Watering pot is very advantageous to combine with moisture loading that produce in the autumn, after the vines cover for the winter, and winter, during thaws and spring, before the opening of the bushes. The consumption rate of water for irrigation moisture loading 1000-1200 m3/ha.

During the summer, produce at least 2 pot irrigation - one after flowering, the second - before ripening berries. The consumption rate of water for watering of 600-800 m3/ha. For irrigation in each aisle is cut by two grooves. Watering produce a small stream, or fissure filled with water twice in succession (first best). After irrigation furrows immediately shut down.

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