For growth and fruiting grape
plant needs a lot of nutrients. Each year, the harvest and the vine,
which is removed during pruning, the bushes, "away" from a large number
of soil nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, sulfur and other elements. If
this loss is not compensated, then such a depleted soil the plants
develop poorly, cease to bear fruit, start to suffer greatly from
adverse environmental conditions, particularly from frost.
During the growing season of
the vine in need of some nutritional changes. In nitrogen, for example,
the plant needs most in the spring, before flowering, when there is a
strong growth of green shoots and leaves. In the summer, when the shoots
and leaves begin to grow weaker, the demand for nitrogen is
significantly reduced, and in autumn, when growth stops, it becomes
quite insignificant. Therefore, foliar nitrogen fertilizer needs to be
done in the spring, during bud break or at the beginning of the growth
of green shoots, as well as in the 1st half of the summer. In the 2nd
half of the summer and fall feeding nitrogen fertilizer is not only not
helpful, but even harmful, because it can cause undue increased growth
of green shoots that will hinder the maturing of the wood.
Phosphorus is needed for the
development of all of the bush, but most of all for the development of
reproductive organs - blossoms, berries, seeds and buds. Particularly
sharp increases the need for phosphorus to the beginning of flowering.
Therefore, fertilizer phosphorus fertilizers should be done in the early
phases of flowering and repeat it in summer.
Need a vine for potassium
increases by autumn. Potassium plays an important role in the maturation
and preparation for overwintering plants. Therefore, in late summer or
early autumn vines give fertilizer potash.
Among other elements, which
play an important role in plant life, it should be noted calcium,
magnesium, iron and sulfur. Calcium accumulates in old trunks and their
long-term ramifications. The need for it is associated with the
neutralization of oxalic acid and the plant cell wall thickening.
Magnesium and iron are needed for the green substance of the leaves -
chlorophyll magnesium is included in its composition, and iron is
necessary for its formation. Sulfur is a part of some proteins.
In most soils of Ukraine
calcium is enough and make it under the grape plants is not necessary.
Excess calcium is harmful to the vine. Sulfur into soil in sufficient
quantities with other fertilizers, mainly with ammonium sulfate and
superphosphate. Magnesium and iron in the soil is usually sufficient,
but if necessary, to make their best in a foliar feeding.
To supply the vine needed
minerals: sodium, silicon, aluminum, boron, manganese, molybdenum, zinc,
cobalt, iodine and others. They are called micronutrients because they
are consumed by plants in very small quantities. All of these substances
in the soil is sufficient, but some of them - boron, zinc, manganese -
should sometimes added as foliar feeding.
Fertilizers can be divided
into organic and mineral. The most common organic fertilizer is animal
manure, which contains all the necessary nutrients for plants and thus
is called a complete fertilizer. Of the mineral there are few.
Ammonium sulphate or ammonium
sulphate - a nitrogenous fertilizer, which is a grayish crystalline
powder, which contains about 20% nitrogen. Ammonium sulphate dissolves
readily in water. After using the plant (ammonium nitrogen) in soil is
part of the fertilizer, sulfuric acid, which is connected to the soil
with lime to form insoluble gypsum.
Ammonium nitrate or ammonium
nitrate - is also a nitrogen fertilizer, which is a coarse white salt.
Ammonium nitrate contains about 35% nitrogen. There are no connections
that would remain in the soil after nitrogen uptake by plant roots.
Ammonium nitrate can be used on all soils.
Superphosphate - phosphate
fertilizer contains from 17 to 20% phosphoric acid. It is derived from
phosphate, crushed and treated with sulfuric acid. Under the influence
of sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid is released free, water-soluble and
readily available for absorption roots. The fresher the superphosphate,
the better it works. For prolonged storage the free water-soluble
phosphoric acid, superphosphate is gradually transformed into an
insoluble form, is almost not absorbed by plant roots.
The chemical industry
produces agranular superphosphate, which gives better results than
powdered. The fact that the free phosphoric acid of superphosphate in
the soil is subject to change and is transformed into a compound that is
poorly taken up by roots. The finer grain of superphosphate applied to
soils, the more likely it free phosphoric acid binds the soil and
becomes unavailable to the roots of grapes. Conversely, the larger
granules of superphosphate, the longer the phosphoric acid may be
absorbed by plant roots. This is the advantage of granulated
superphosphate. The granules are stuck particles of superphosphate. Next
to each pellet, soil, creates a zone rich in soluble phosphoric acid,
which is the roots of the vine is easy to learn.
Good mix granulated
superphosphate and manure into the soil to make the mixture, without
mixing with the ground. This further prevents the absorption of
phosphoric acid from the soil. In addition, around the granules in the
soil conditions are favorable for the growth of microorganisms that help
roots absorb phosphoric acid.
It should be noted also that
when feeding, when the soil is made in the form of fertilizer solution,
phosphoric acid, superphosphate is left unprotected, causing it to
rapidly binds with soil. The action of feeding in these cases,
short-lived. It is therefore recommended to make the solution more
deeply, closer to the roots and in small doses, but more often.
As potash fertilizer is often
used with potassium chloride, sold in stores. It contains about 50%
potassium oxide. But the fertilizer big drawback: it contains chlorine,
which, after absorption by plants of potassium remains in the soil, the
presence of chlorine in large quantities is harmful to plants. Therefore
it is better to apply as potash fertilizer ash. It contains not only a
lot of potassium, but also a lot of phosphorus. The best ash obtained
from sunflower husks. It contains from 24 to 40% of potassium and
approximately 4% of the phosphorus and other nutrients. Sunflower husks
can get in the right quantity at the creameries plants. The ash must be
stored in a dry place, as the nutrients are in it to soluble compounds
and, if the ash is in the rain easily washed out of it.
Some people believe that by
applying fertilizers, manure can be dispensed with. This is wrong.
Application of manure in combination with mineral fertilizers
contributes to more efficient use of nutrients and fertilizers reduces
the absorption of the soil. Manure in the soil creates favorable
conditions for microbial growth, the roots of vines to help absorb
In order to fully ensure the
vines with nutrients, you need to follow a certain system of fertilizers
and fertilizing. Fertilizer in the soil pose the main supply of
nutrients, and dressings during the growing season increase soil
nutrition bushes with the substances that are one time or another most
Fertilizers and fertilizing
system aimed at increasing the fruitfulness of shrubs and vigorous, to
enhance their cold hardiness. This can be achieved if the spring in the
soil will be sufficient assimilable nitrogen, and during the summer -
phosphorus. In the autumn bush food should be increased in potassium,
during the same summer should be feeding micronutrients.
Fertiliser applied to the
soil under the vines, it is necessary to plug the deep, as the bulk of
fibrous roots at a depth of 15-20 to 30-35 cm Therefore, the main
fertilizer is recommended to bring a deep digging, fertilizing and fill
in the grooves in liquid form and by means of irrigation advance or as
they say, "wash" them into the lower layers.
The best fertilizer is
manure. It contains everything you need for soil nutrition of the vines,
and enriches the soil with humus and makes it loose. The nutrients
contained in manure, digested by the plant gradually, as their expansion
in 3-4 years. Recommended to apply manure in the autumn in a mixture
with fertilizers at the rate of 5 kg of manure, 100 g of superphosphate,
100 g of ash and 50 g of ammonium sulfate per 1 m2. Immediately after
its distribution over the surface of the soil makes digging deep.
Fertilize with manure should be a time in 3 years. Under vines is
recommended to bring a fresh dung The straw, especially horses. Manure
from the greenhouses for this purpose does not work, since there is
usually a lot of grubs, and they gnaw through underground stems vines.
Every spring do Fertilizer
fossa. To do this, prepare a mixture of manure (10 parts) and
superphosphate (part 1). Dig a hole in the middle between two bushes
depth of 30-35 cm in width shovel. At the bottom drop out of a shovel
full of cooked mixture and fertilizing, without mixing it with earth,
bury, and tramp. The end of the roots during the growth of their way to
the fertilizing mixture and absorb the phosphoric acid.
Of great importance are
feeding. They should be combined with irrigation: the first feeding of
doing during bud break, the second - after flowering, the third - before
the ripening of berries. As a means of fertilizing can be used slurry,
poultry manure or superphosphate with ammonium nitrate.
Slurry is prepared from fresh
cow manure at the rate of 0.5 kg per 1 m2. Manure diluted in
water 2 times a cemented pit or vat, cover tightly with a lid and allow
to ferment. Then, the fermented sediment was diluted with water at a
ratio of 1:20 and dispensed under the bushes at the rate of 0.5 buckets
of water per 1 m2. Then make watering.
Poultry manure contains many
nutrients. Need to use it with caution, as if above the threshold it can
cause harm. Make it the basis of 50 g dry weight per 1 m2.
Poultry manure was diluted 2-fold with water and allowed to stand for 2
weeks. 0.1 liters of slurry is diluted in a bucket and poured into the
bushes per 1 m2. Then watered.
It is important that the
bushes were enhanced nitrogen nutrition in the first days of root uptake
of soil solutions. To do this, after autumn digging of the soil surface
scatter ammonium sulphate or ammonium nitrate at the rate of 50 g/m2.
The solutions of these salts is very easy to move in the soil, and the
autumn-winter precipitation, "washed" them in the spring in the area of
the greatest mass of roots of the shrub. On light sandy soils make
nitrogen fertilizer in the fall is not recommended because the solutions
of fertilizers on these soils will be washed away in layers below the
main mass of the absorbing roots.
Solutions for dressing
fertilizers are prepared as follows. At the first feeding takes 100
grams of superphosphate and 50 g of ammonium nitrate per 1 m2.
These fertilizers are applied as a solution. In the evening portion of
superphosphate measured poured into the barrel and pour a measured
amount of water, mix well and leave overnight. On the morning of the
same barrel of dissolved ammonium nitrate. The solution was then diluted
with water. In the calculation we must proceed from the proportions of
10 kg of superphosphate fill 10 buckets of water, add 5 kg in the
morning nitrate. Then, 1 liter of solution was diluted with 9 liters of
water and pour this amount of 1 m2. In the 2nd and 3rd
feeding instead of nitrate added wood ash from the same calculation,
that is 50 g/m2. During feeding is recommended to apply borax
at a rate of 1 g/m2.
Watering is necessary in the
day, when done feeding. Fertilizer with the water penetrate the lower
layers of soil, where the bulk of the roots. Without watering most of
the nutrients remain in the upper and benefit from them will be much
That the water is better
distributed over the surface without dripping and evenly soaked into the
soil, you need to prepare a series along the groove depth of 15 cm and a
width of 40 cm after feeding groove is filled with water at the rate of
10-15 buckets on the bush. Water can be bring up car carry water or let
tap water overlap with hoses. Once the water is absorbed, the grooves
fall asleep. Then, the surface leveled with a rake.
For foliar feeding grapes
recommended spray the leaves aqueous extract of superphosphate with the
addition of trace elements in solution. Nitrogen fertilizer (ammonium
sulphate, ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate), even in small
concentrations, burn grape leaves.
The solution was prepared as
follows. On a bucket of water (10 L) take 50 g of superphosphate, and
leave to infuse for a day. During this time, the infusion to a few times
to mix. The real water (which becomes yellowish) drained so that
sediment remains in the tank, and then add to it borax or boric acid at
the rate of 2 g per 10 liters. There also can add 2 g of manganese
sulfate, 5 g of ferrous iron (Mohr's salt) and 1 g of zinc sulfate.
The resulting solution was
poured into a hand sprayer and sprayed with any of them bushes. We need
to try to mortar fell on the underside of the leaf, as on this side of
the nutrients absorbed better than from the top. Atomizer spray to drive
smoothly, make sure that the liquid does not hit twice in the same
Foliar feeding is best done
in cloudy weather. Particularly good results are obtained from a feed at
a time when the night falls copious dew. This promotes better absorption
of nutrients in the leaves. Foliar application made before flowering and
during the ripening berries.
Irrigation in the South of
Ukraine has the greatest impact on increasing yields. Watering pot is
very advantageous to combine with moisture loading that produce in the
autumn, after the vines cover for the winter, and winter, during thaws
and spring, before the opening of the bushes. The consumption rate of
water for irrigation moisture loading 1000-1200 m3/ha.
During the summer, produce at
least 2 pot irrigation - one after flowering, the second - before
ripening berries. The consumption rate of water for watering of 600-800
m3/ha. For irrigation in each aisle is cut by two grooves.
Watering produce a small stream, or fissure filled with water twice in
succession (first best). After irrigation furrows immediately shut down.