Growing grapes

 

 

 

Grape varieties and their characteristics

Table varieties of grapes

Technical varieties of grapes

The classification of grape varieties on the novelty

The choice of grape variety

 

Tab is vineyards

Biological characteristics of grapes

Inventory winegrower

Preparation for tab a vineyard

Planting of vines

The quality of seedlings grape

Formation and pruning vines

Guyot system

 

Wine glasshouse culture

Soil conditions and location

Planting grapes

Pruning and forming grapes

Pollination of grapes

Decimation grapes

Supplementary feeding and watering grapes

The harvest of grapes

Pests and diseases of grapes

 

The basic rules grafting grapes

Grafting of grapes eye or bud

Grafting of grapes in a split green shoots

Grafting of grapes to split trunk

Using last year's grape cuttings

Grafting of grapes "green on green'

The method of budding grapes

Kilchevanie of grapes

Care of grafted grape plants

Reproduction of the grape

Wintering grapes

Derivation of frost varieties of grapes

 

The use of grapes for landscaping

Planting grapes at the walls and arbors

Formation and pruning vines for greenery

 

Care of vineyards

Artificial pollination of grapes

Fertilizers for grapes

Recovering the vines from frost damage

Elimination of thinning grapes

Pruning of vine

Green operations in the Vineyard

Improving the quality of grapes

 

Methods of protection of grapes

Pests of grapevine

Diseases of the vine

Weed plants

Protection of vineyards from disease

Definition of diseases of grapes on the external signs of injury

Protecting grapes from pests and diseases

Characteristics of herbicides permitted for use

Precautions when working with pesticides

 

Collection and processing of grapes

Collection and storage of grapes

Grapes in cooking

 

Making a home of grape wine

Dry wines

Dessert wines

Manufacturing technology of sweet dessert of grape wine

The composition of grape wine

Diseases of the wine

Classification of wines

Table wines

Local wines

Quality wines

Wine tasting

Making wine from fruit and berries

Storage of wine

 

Culture of wine drinking

Culture of wine consumption

 

Dry wines

White dry wine is recommended to prepare mature white grape varieties with a light, delicate flavor, pleasant acidity, not tart taste of the type of Riesling, Aligote, Bianca, etc. Grades with a strong pleasant aroma (Muscat, Isabella, Eln) for table wines not good.

If the wine is made from immature berries, containing little sugar, while in the beginning of the fermentation of the wort add sugar, to the total number of his was not more than 27%.

Wort (wandering dazed juice) for white dry wine prepared in the usual way. Received must immediately put on fermentation. To do this it is poured into bottles or barrels on 3/4 volume, add 2% (200 g per 10 l of wort) 4-day of the leaven of wine yeast and close the cylinder water seal.

Fermentation is recommended when temperature of not less than 18 and not more than 24 °C. At temperatures above or below optimum can happen partial fermentation. Desirable and sharp lowering the temperature below 15 °C, in particular if the fermentation is coming to the end of the. Such a decline could it stop completely, despite the fact that's not the entire sugar fermented.

Although at low temperatures, it turns out part fermentation, yeast remain active, they only suspend fermentation. It is worth heat wort to the optimal temperature (20 °C) - fermentation again will resume. But first should roil yeast in the mixing tank.

Ferment tongue or water seal called the 10-centimeter glass curved tube inserted one end of the groove. At the other end of the wear a rubber tube, which immersed in a glass of boiled water. The water in the glass should be frequently to change.

The increase of temperature during fermentation much more dangerous than a decrease. Yeast weaken, and to revive them activity is not possible. In this case, the wort has to be removed from the the rubber tubes with sediment yeast and add fresh yeast wine yeast. If the leaven no, it is possible to not ferment guilt add the thick out of the container, in which the normal fermentation. Under normal the temperature of the rapid fermentation with the liberation of foam passes within 5-8 days. After this, in the cylinders need to add the wine of the same kind.

Adding - reception of absolutely mandatory and it's very important. Not drenched wine can easily get sick vinegar souring or covered with white film. In addition, not drenched wine, oxidized, becomes extremely unpleasant smell, from which it is impossible to get rid of. The main condition, warning disease wine, "this is cleanliness. The neck of the cylinder, the hole groovy barrel and the tongue every day wipe with a clean cloth soaked in 2 %a solution of soda.

At the end of the rapid selection of foam fermentation calms down. Then the wine is left alone until it will not cease effervescence and will not be felt for a taste of sugar. After that it is still 2 weeks, during which the yeast settle to the bottom and wine is lightened. Then the wine is removed from the sediment and fill their tanks to half of the neck, tightly sealed steamed dried plugs and put on storage for 2 months at a temperature not lower than 15 °C.

You should not delay the withdrawal of the wine of the sediment, otherwise, the yeast will start to decompose, giving the guilt of a very bad smell and taste of yeast. Although taken from the sediment dry table wine can already be use it in this period was still will smell of yeast. For the time store in a fault of precipitation, it is clarified, acquires characteristic for the variety of aroma. After this wine again removed with the sludge, is bottled in bottles up to half the height of the bottle, block polyethylene or cork plugs (cork cork poured with resin or wax) and put the bottles horizontally.

Red dry table wine made from varieties of grapes with a black and dark-red color the skin: Cabernet, Saperavi, Mattress, Senso, the Regent, etc. For preparation of dry red wine, in contrast to white, are used more sweet grapes.

The whole technology of preparation of dry red wine is aimed at obtaining wine with thick dark colour and necessary for dark grapes astringency.

The collected berries are separated from crests, crush and put the pulp in the enamel bucket or barrel 3/4 the volume. There immediately add yeast yeast (2 % of the loaded pulp). Pulp mixed, and barrel cover with a piece of plywood or wooden circle. During the fermentation, rising above the cap must pulp several times a day mixed. This is doing to the wort is not turned in vinegar. Before the end of rapid fermentation, the wine must be separated from the pulp. For this pulp press as well as the separation of the juice from pulp from white grape varieties. When there is no media, pulp lean on a colander, then the wine is poured into the tank, and pulp squeeze through the bag. A breakaway wine mixed with original and pour into the cylinders at 3/4 of their volume. Then close the cylinder water seal and the rest of the do the same, as with wine from white grapes.

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Выращивание винограда

 

Growing grapes