Growing grapes

 

 

 

Grape varieties and their characteristics

Table varieties of grapes

Technical varieties of grapes

The classification of grape varieties on the novelty

The choice of grape variety

 

Tab is vineyards

Biological characteristics of grapes

Inventory winegrower

Preparation for tab a vineyard

Planting of vines

The quality of seedlings grape

Formation and pruning vines

Guyot system

 

Wine glasshouse culture

Soil conditions and location

Planting grapes

Pruning and forming grapes

Pollination of grapes

Decimation grapes

Supplementary feeding and watering grapes

The harvest of grapes

Pests and diseases of grapes

 

The basic rules grafting grapes

Grafting of grapes eye or bud

Grafting of grapes in a split green shoots

Grafting of grapes to split trunk

Using last year's grape cuttings

Grafting of grapes "green on green'

The method of budding grapes

Kilchevanie of grapes

Care of grafted grape plants

Reproduction of the grape

Wintering grapes

Derivation of frost varieties of grapes

 

The use of grapes for landscaping

Planting grapes at the walls and arbors

Formation and pruning vines for greenery

 

Care of vineyards

Artificial pollination of grapes

Fertilizers for grapes

Recovering the vines from frost damage

Elimination of thinning grapes

Pruning of vine

Green operations in the Vineyard

Improving the quality of grapes

 

Methods of protection of grapes

Pests of grapevine

Diseases of the vine

Weed plants

Protection of vineyards from disease

Definition of diseases of grapes on the external signs of injury

Protecting grapes from pests and diseases

Characteristics of herbicides permitted for use

Precautions when working with pesticides

 

Collection and processing of grapes

Collection and storage of grapes

Grapes in cooking

 

Making a home of grape wine

Dry wines

Dessert wines

Manufacturing technology of sweet dessert of grape wine

The composition of grape wine

Diseases of the wine

Classification of wines

Table wines

Local wines

Quality wines

Wine tasting

Making wine from fruit and berries

Storage of wine

 

Culture of wine drinking

Culture of wine consumption

 

Diseases of the vine

Goiter, or cancer of the roots. It affects a variety of horticultural crops, including grapes. Cancer affects usually lignified aerial parts, occasionally observed at the root collar. Distributed mainly in the malicious and grafted vines. Massive disease is favored by planting vines in humid lowlands, winter, and various other damage vines (grafting, pruning, insects, hail, etc.).

Control measures. When pruning is carried out clipping of affected parts and burning their vines (the obligatory disinfection of instruments, such as 5% solution of formalin). Produce a preform with chibouk unaffected bushes, culling sick seedlings, rejuvenate severely affected by the bushes and, if necessary, remove them.

 

Anthracnose (Fig. 1). The vineyard is manifested in the form of brown spots on leaves, fruit and young shoots. Especially dangerous is the disease of shoots, which are formed at the site of lesion deep ulcers, - lying above part of the shoot dries up, and the escape breaking and disappears. The shoots are infected at a young age until they woody. Spots on the leaves at first yellow, then turning brown with a dark border. Later, the dried tissue and fall leaves develop holes. Formed on the berries round whitish spots edged with blackish in the form of ulcers. Spots on the surface of developing plaque.

Control measures. Pruning and destroying affected shoots. Fall or early spring - spraying vines with a solution of iron sulphate. After bud break - dusting sulfur or spraying 1% Bordeaux liquid.

Pict. 1. Anthracnose of grapes

Pict. 1. Anthracnose of grapes

 

Rubella. With the defeat of rubella on the leaves of red varieties in the corners between the major veins are red spots with a bright green or yellow edges; later the spots coalesce, becoming reddish-brown..

On the leaves of the white grape varieties spots appear yellow. The causative organism overwinters in fallen leaves. The temperature of 18-20 C is optimal for the development of pathogens and plant infection. Infection is possible in the absence of liquid water drip. The disease may manifest early, starting at the bottom of the hive.

Control measures. The first spraying 1% Bordeaux liquid hold approximately 10-12 days before the first spraying against mildew (further spraying against rubella and mildew are the same). Requires cleaning the leaves, preserving moisture in the soil, vine nutrition.

 

Mildew (Pict. 2). The disease affects all green parts of the vine. Appear on the leaves bright yellow-green ("oily") stains on the bottom which in damp weather (rain, dew) produces a grayish fuzz sporophores. Later spots turn brown. At buds and flowers sometimes appear grayish bloom; of the lesions may dry up entire wrist. On young berries appear dark-gray color, sometimes grayish bloom, in the future is wrinkling, drying and falling berries. On older berries appear brown, heave skin, the flesh becomes brown, watery, then peel wrinkled, dry fruits, staying to hang. On the green shoots, petioles, antennae - watery, then yellowish-green and finally brown spots, they sometimes appear grayish bloom. If there is rain, and the establishment of the average daily temperature is not below 11 C spores germinate, the primary cause of infection, which are repeated many times. Throughout the summer, conidia are formed, causing multiple secondary infection. Infection occurs when the availability of droplet liquid moisture.

Control measures. When laying the vineyard and care for him create the conditions better ventilated spaces, fast drying drops of moisture, have rows along the prevailing wind, avoid the lowlands and wetlands, remove excessive thickening and etc.

The success of anti-mildew is primarily dependent on the timeliness of chemical treatment. The timing of spraying against mildew vineyards in one of two ways: 1) in the incubation period, 2) from the increase of new leaves.

Mildew of grapes

Pict. 2. Mildew of grapes

Incubation period is the time elapsed from the moment of infection until the spores of the fungus. Empirically established that the incubation period varies depending on the temperature:

 

Temperature,

The incubation period,

days

1314

1210

1516

98

1718

76

1920

65

2127

45

2829

57

 

On this basis, to determine the timing of spraying on the incubation period is necessary to monitor air temperature and precipitation, as well as the emergence of the first spots of mildew on the leaves. If after the rains leaves and soil will be moist for 2-3 days, the temperature will not fall below 11 C, then we can assume that the winter spores germinated and the first mildew infection occurred. Watching more for average temperature, you can set the appearance of the term mildew spores, by which time it is necessary to conduct spraying to protect the leaves from a new infection.

In the 2nd method of determining the timing of spraying are monitoring the growth of new leaves. The first spraying is carried out in the spring with the appearance of 4-5 leaves and rainfall. In dry years, first spraying is carried out with the growth of 4-5 new leaves, about 8-10 days, and when the weather is dry with an increase in leaf 07/06 - 12-14 days.

Thus, during the summer spend from 3 to 6 - 8 sprays to the development of mildew. Liquid flow in spraying from 600 to 1500 liters per 1 ha, depending on the density of trees, forming and vigorous shrub. 3 weeks before harvest spraying stopped.

Grape vineyard sprayed every 8 - 12 days, spending 300 to 800 liters per 1 ha.

When spraying the sprayer tip should be at a distance of 30-40 cm from the leaves and a 30 angle to them, so that the liquid falling on the underside of leaves. In areas of strong annual distribution of downy mildew of grape culture should be maintained at high trellis - under these conditions is less possibility that the oospores in leaves.

In addition to spraying the vine itself, it is recommended spraying eradicated, it is the destruction of overwintering spores of the parasitic fungus on the fallen infected leaves by spraying the soil between the rows potent poisons: 0.5% m selinon, drugs 47 (2%) and 125 (4 %), while consuming up to 3,000 liters of liquid per 1 ha, as well as other pesticides allowed for use.

Of great importance are the deep plowing in vineyards in autumn or early spring, cutting and removal of vines showing signs of defeat, the maintenance of the vineyard fallow during the spring and summer, and the introduction of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.

Almost all European vine mildew, yet among them there are also more resistant varieties that can be sprayed often. In the southern regions of Ukraine more resistant to mildew, the following varieties: Aligote, Sylvaner, Senso, Portugizer, Riesling, less stable Chaush, Zant, Black Crimea.

 

Oidium (Pict. 3). The disease affects all green parts. On the leaves appear grayish pubescence, then mealy coating. The same coating is formed on the inflorescence. On shoots from early spring buds first appear at the bottom of small whitish spots, gradually passing into the powdery plaque covering the entire flight. On young berries appears abundant powdery coating on the larger berries - raid areas. Affected berries are covered by ash coating, crack, and the seeds are exposed. Cracked fruit rot or dry out. Affected buds and leaves are also covered by a grayish-ash deposit. This plaque develops on both the lower and the upper side. Severely affected leaves and inflorescences oidium wither and fall off. On the green shoots appear brown spots of irregular shape, covered with gray bloom. The parasite hibernates as mycelium on infected shoots (marsupial stage has no practical significance). Spring infections occur as a result of the resumption of the activity of the overwintered mycelium. In the Crimea found that the first manifestation of oidium occurs when the sum of average daily temperatures from the date of opening a kidney, reaching an average of 237 C. Conidia are formed in the mold during the growing season, causing new infections. The duration of parasite development, from germination of conidia and infection of plants to the formation of new conidia depends on the temperature. The appearance of sporophores and conidial infection is possible in the relatively dry air: the germination of conidia can occur even at a relative humidity of 8%.

Oidium, or powdery mildew of grapes

Pict. 3. Oidium, or powdery mildew of grapes

Control measures. To be effective, the fight should be a whole range of measures.

1. Collection and burning of dry leaves, pruning and removal of dry grapes.

2. On a covering vineyards in autumn, after the cessation of sap flow, and the neukryvnyh - spring, before bud swelling, hold 5-degree spray lime-sulfur broth (ISO). In the spring with the appearance of oidium - dusting powdered sulfur. Follow-dusting spend 10-20 days depending on the development oidium. Best results are obtained by dusting the dew. The effectiveness of dusting sulfur depends on temperature: at low temperatures, spores are killed only after 11 days, and at a temperature of 13-31 C die within 7-4 and even after 2 hours. Consumption of sulfur dusting from 15 to 30 kg per 1 ha. With a lack of sulfur, as well as for better spray is mixed with an equal amount of hydrated lime. In addition to sulfur drugs to combat oidium using 0.5% solution of sodium carbonate (50 g of sodium and 40 grams of soap per 10 liters of water). Sprinkle baking soda repeated every 10 days.

For the treatment of different sorts of grapes affected oidium, or to deal with it in individual households can apply 0.05% solution of potassium permanganate (50 g of potassium per 100 liters of water). Such a solution very quickly effect on mycelium of the parasite, and sick leaves and bunches of cleaned of plaque. However, its effect is short-lived, and after 4-5 days of berries again be covered with bloom, so after the spraying must be carried out dusting sulfur.

3. Good results in the fight against oidium gives spraying 1% sulfur colloid at a rate of 600-800 liters per 1 ha. With the simultaneous appearance of mildew in the vineyards and oidium perhaps spraying the composition of a combined 1% Bordeaux fluid with 1% sulfur colloid. Usually it is enough to oidium against two sprays 1% suspension of colloidal sulfur, and the combined structure to three spraying, with the strong development of the disease should be sprayed 4 times.

4. In addition to chemical substances, some farms are successfully used spray dung infusion. To do this, pour 1 part Mullein 3 parts water and insist 3 days, then filtered and diluted with 3 parts water. This method is based on the fact that the bacteria contained in the infusion, destroy the mycelium oidium. However, when sprayed dung infusion precluded the possibility of processing plants other chemicals, from which bacteria are killed. You can not prepare the infusion in a pot out of toxic chemicals. Before spraying equipment is thoroughly washed.

Completely resistant to oidium grapes there, but there is a difference in degree of susceptibility. In Crimea, the most stable Aligote, Semillon, Kokur.

Spotted anthracnose. The disease affects various organs of the vine. On the shoots formed small, then increasing brown, then black spots with a roll at the edges. The bark and wood are destroyed in the affected location (threads are the vascular bundles). Similar signs appear on petioles, fruit stems, leaf veins. On the leaves appear brown or grayish spots with reddish or dark brown border, then - the hole (left ribs). On berries appear round whitish or brownish dirty depressed spots with black or purple border. The causative organism overwinters in infected shoots as mycelium, penetrating in the spring of healthy surrounding tissue. Conidia are formed, which cause new infections. Can overwintering conidia in the cracks of bark, etc. The disease can occur in early spring on the branches. The most favorable time for the infection - the flowering period. The most severe disease progression observed in the abundance of rain in the spring. It predominates in the low-lying, damp places, in thick planting, with excessive nitrogen fertilization, with the horizontal (the wire) forming a bush.

Control measures. In the autumn vineyard is carefully cleaned of leaves, berries, dried and diseased branches. When excessive moisture temporarily stop watering, thin out the bushes. For planting should take healthy cuttings. Spring before bud swelling coated with the aerial parts of 6% solution of iron or copper sulfate.

 

Chlorosis. The causes of chlorosis varied, they are reduced to metabolic disorders from excessive soil moisture during the growth of vines on heavy soils with excess lime from excessive drought, etc. It affects a variety of horticultural crops. The leaves become yellow-green, then yellow. Yellowing occurs gradually, with the green color of the longest preserved along the veins. Shoots are stunted, are thin and short. With further development of the disease of the sheet dry up, and then dries the entire leaf blade. Interstices of chlorotic shoots are shortened, their tops often die. Often in chlorotic shoots developed many fine laterals with small leaves and whole plant takes the form of thick bush. This form of disease called chlorosis "kottis".

Infected chlorotic shrubs usually give little berries, which are small and yellow, wood shoots matured, and therefore chlorotic plants have low frost resistance. The first manifestation of chlorosis observed in the spring, shortly after blooming shoots. Sometimes, with the onset of warm weather chlorosis disappears and shrubs take a normal green color.

Control measures. In order to avoid chlorosis from excess humidity necessary to carry out timely and moderate watering, with an abundance of precipitation and the presence of severe soil - its drainage on heavy soils produce less profound approach and frequent, thorough treatment. On soils with an excess of lime is better to use mineral fertilizers (potash, superphosphate, nitrate), avoiding heavy-spreading, and only after the disappearance of chlorosis can make organic fertilizer. In the case of chlorosis by drought requires appropriate treatment of the soil. With an excess of lime in the soil are used repeatedly sprayed in the summer of 0.5-1% solution of ferrous sulfate. In the fall, after pruning, vines coated with 15% solution of ferrous sulfate and iron sulfate to make the soil a rest period of 150-400 g per bush. To do this, dig around the bush groove, poured vitriol on the bottom ground, watered and covered with earth.

The best way to combat chlorosis - acidification of the soil. At the same time in the ranks among the bushes at a distance of 40 cm from the plant dug pits depth of 45 cm and a diameter of 25 cm pit pour 4-5 liters 1.7% solution of sulfuric acid. To prepare the solution use technical sulfuric acid specific gravity 1,83-1,84.

On 170 l of water take 10 l acid, the acid is poured necessarily in the water, not vice versa, it has not turned violent reaction when connecting to the water with sulfuric acid. She looks like a pit mixed with a solution covered with earth until pasty state, and an hour after the pit covered with earth.

In the fight against chlorosis is also used noncalcareous columns: in the holes prepared as for acidification, make noncalcareous (devoid of lime) soil, compacted and covered with earth, taken out of the pits.

If necessary, for better plant growth in the pits at the same time make a complete fertilizer.

 

Tserkosporoz or green mold (Pict. 4). The disease mainly affects leaves, shoots and then, sometimes berries. At the top of the leaves appear yellow, then brown spots with yellow or red border, the bottom - an olive-green velvet raids sporophores.

Tserkosporoz grapes

Pict. 4. Tserkosporoz grapes:

a - the affected leaves, 6 - conidia

Pathogens in various stages of winter in fallen leaves and other plant parts.

Control measures. Spraying calcium polysulfide after flowering in mid-June and early July. Cleaning and disposal of fallen leaves.

 

Black rot (Pict. 5). It affects mainly berries, as well as the stalk, ridges, petioles, leaves, young shoots. Berries appear to sprawling brown sunken spots, and soon their surface wrinkled, dark (blue in) and becomes rough on many black bumps (pycnidia). On the leaves form large brownish with dark-bordered spots along the veins - the black knobs.

Black rot of grapes

Pict. 5. Black rot of grapes:

a - the affected berries, b - conidia sporulation

On shoots and other parts - elongated spots, convex form lumps. Disease appears first on the leaves, it occurs on the berries before ripening. Pathogen overwinters "pycnidia resting", which are mature or maturing in the spring debates. Germination of spores and infection may in droplets of moisture. The optimum temperature for development of 20-25 C. The combination of high temperatures and humidity favor disease development.

Control measures. Sprayed with 1% Bordeaux fluid at the first appearance of leaf shapes, repeated spraying several times. Of great importance are: the normal pruning, proper tillage, wide aisles, clean leaves, berries, etc.

 

White mold (Pict. 6). The disease affects berry, stalk, crests, leaves, shoots. The berries are red-brown or bluish-brown, on the surface a mass of dirty-white tubercles, berries shrivel, dry up. On the leaves appear brown, oblong or indefinite form spots on them - off-white bumps, usually near the middle of the veins. The leaves are dull gray, dry, staying to hang. On the shoots appear brown or black spots with a ring-roller; on them - off-white lumps. Spots above the leaves turn red, then dry up and fall off. Infection of berries occurs in the presence of liquid water drip in the presence of damage (cracking of berries from the intense heat, heavy irrigation water, with the coming rainy weather after drought, insect damage). Of great importance is a barrage of defeat. Infection is possible in the absence of damage, but if the disease progresses more slowly.

The optimum temperature for spore germination is 25-30 C. Berries are usually amazed begin at the beginning of ripening.

Control measures. Removal and burning of dry grapes, infected shoots, etc. According to some sources, immediately after the city (within 16 hours) must be done dusting with a mixture of sulfur (60%), cement (32%) and ash (8%). Indicate the effectiveness of spraying with 0.5% m bisulphite of calcium or potassium bisulfite.

White rot of grapes

Pict. 6. White rot of grapes:

a - the affected berries, b - conidia sporulation

You can also carry out spraying of the vineyard 4% Bordeaux liquid immediately after the hail, dry off as soon as the leaves. In the case of brownish berries spraying must be repeated.

 

Grey plesnevidnaya rot. It affects different cultures. The disease affects berries, leaves, young shoots and berries, etc. are covered by a continuous gathering dust fluffy mouse-colored patina. On the leaves appear yellow, then rusty spots on which there is a raid of the fungus. The disease usually develops in ripe berries that have been damaged, for example, caterpillars of the leaf grozdevoy, especially in rainy weather. In moderate humidity the development of fungus on berries gives them specific qualities that make the wine obtained from them, is of particular value (the phenomenon of "noble" rot).

Control measures. Regulation of irrigation, maintenance of sufficient moisture. Collection and removal of infected shoots and bunches. Carrying out the vineyard all farming operations that contribute to a better aeration of plantations. Careful control of pests and other diseases of grapes. Sprinkle 1% solution of green soap.

 

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Growing grapes