Growing grapes

 

 

 

Grape varieties and their characteristics

Table varieties of grapes

Technical varieties of grapes

The classification of grape varieties on the novelty

The choice of grape variety

 

Tab is vineyards

Biological characteristics of grapes

Inventory winegrower

Preparation for tab a vineyard

Planting of vines

The quality of seedlings grape

Formation and pruning vines

Guyot system

 

Wine glasshouse culture

Soil conditions and location

Planting grapes

Pruning and forming grapes

Pollination of grapes

Decimation grapes

Supplementary feeding and watering grapes

The harvest of grapes

Pests and diseases of grapes

 

The basic rules grafting grapes

Grafting of grapes eye or bud

Grafting of grapes in a split green shoots

Grafting of grapes to split trunk

Using last year's grape cuttings

Grafting of grapes "green on green'

The method of budding grapes

Kilchevanie of grapes

Care of grafted grape plants

Reproduction of the grape

Wintering grapes

Derivation of frost varieties of grapes

 

The use of grapes for landscaping

Planting grapes at the walls and arbors

Formation and pruning vines for greenery

 

Care of vineyards

Artificial pollination of grapes

Fertilizers for grapes

Recovering the vines from frost damage

Elimination of thinning grapes

Pruning of vine

Green operations in the Vineyard

Improving the quality of grapes

 

Methods of protection of grapes

Pests of grapevine

Diseases of the vine

Weed plants

Protection of vineyards from disease

Definition of diseases of grapes on the external signs of injury

Protecting grapes from pests and diseases

Characteristics of herbicides permitted for use

Precautions when working with pesticides

 

Collection and processing of grapes

Collection and storage of grapes

Grapes in cooking

 

Making a home of grape wine

Dry wines

Dessert wines

Manufacturing technology of sweet dessert of grape wine

The composition of grape wine

Diseases of the wine

Classification of wines

Table wines

Local wines

Quality wines

Wine tasting

Making wine from fruit and berries

Storage of wine

 

Culture of wine drinking

Culture of wine consumption

 

Culture of wine consumption

Drink of the wine should be happy, beautiful and in the measure. Only then you can get a true pleasure and a maximum benefit from the use of wine. Here has its own, specific culture. Get the skills of the correct use of wine can be when visiting tasting the halls. This is the best way of getting acquainted with wines. And at the same time always it should be remembered, that wine is not only an alcoholic drink, but also a certain aesthetic category, such as the product of creativity, like a picture or book.

It all starts with the glasses. He must be transparent, colorless, preferably crystal and on the leg, for which supposed to hold the glass, to how to evaluate the game of color and the transparency of the drink. The general rule: the stronger the drink, the less capacity. Only cognac made to drink of spherical glasses of different sizes - from 75 to 250 ml on a short stalk. When the glass is filled with only a quarter of the volume. So the best thing you can feel the cognac bouquet. In fact, any vessel for alcoholic beverages pour to the edges are not supposed to leave a free space for concentration flavor. That is why the majority of glasses for the wine (especially dessert and fortified) usually have tulip shaped form.

Grape wines and champagne are recommended drink, as it was mentioned above, the special glasses made of thin colorless glass, it is desirable to crystal.

The most acceptable form of glasses for the wine is tulip prominent or cut ovate, on thin stems the average height. In a glass of such a form of delayed and as if concentrated secreted by the wine flavor and bouquet.

Champagne and other sparkling wines made drink from a special "champagne" glasses high conical form, preferably with a hollow leg. In such glasses for a long time, and more best seen sparkling properties of wine. The capacity of the glasses should be 100-120 ml bottles.

Drink of the wine should be slow, small sips, enjoying a wide range of taste sensations, hidden in this product. Taste wine in many respects depends on its temperature. It is considered, how many degrees the fortress is indicated on the label - this temperature, the better the wine and drink. For the best manifestations of the taste and aromatic advantages of grape wine, champagne and cognac they are served to the table when tested for each a group of drinks optimal temperatures: dry white wine chilled up to 10-12 °C, table red wines - to 16-18, strong - up to 18-20, dessert - up to 14-16, champagne and white muscat sparkling - up to 8-10, sparkling red wine - up to the 14-16, cognac to room temperature (16-18 °C). In general, the wine is better not keep in the refrigerator, where the ambient temperature is below wine cellars (12 °C). All crimean wine (even canteens) on the heat is better to drink diluted with drinking water.

For a pleasant and gustatory perception correct evaluation of flavouring and aromatic advantages of grape wines of great importance is of the order of serving the drinks and the successful combination of them with consumed snacks and meals.

Many of the drinks have the property to prepare the human body in advance and to the absorption of alcohol, and to the food. They are called aperitif. Dry champagne, madeira, sherry, port wine, vermouth is served as an aperitif under the light no acute appetizer before the main meal.

White table wine drink with fish dishes (except herring and fish in marinade), with different cheeses, with light mild meat dishes - game, chickens, chicken. Mix well with white table wines sour-sweet apples.

For rich meat dishes and to such snacks, as ham, sausage, bacon, served red table wines with a high the content of tannins (tanning binders).

Semi-sweet wines go well with vegetable dishes (cauliflower, green peas, etc.), as well as with crabs, crayfish, oysters.

Champagne and other sparkling wines have widely popular as a wine holiday, employees of the decoration of the table and creating a happy solemn mood. Dry and semi-dry champagne can be submitted to any dish, except for herring and marinades. Semisweet and sweet sparkling, as well as all of dessert wines serves only to dessert with such appetizers as mild cheeses, biscuits, fruit, sweets, ice-cream. For dessert you can also serve limited quantities vintage brandy with lemon, coffee, tea, oranges and other fruit. Also cognacs are served to expensive chocolate, good cigars or a pipe. Eating them as it is not accepted. Their kiss the cup, enjoying the aroma, admire the color, game beverage in glass...

It is not recommended to drink at the same time, the more than a mix of strong alcoholic drinks (vodka, cognac, etc.) with the champagne and other sparkling wines, as well as with strong dessert wines. Violation of this procedure leads to a rapid intoxication and long steady headaches.

And the main rule: the wine is not eating, and the wine to wash down the food. Each dish in its own way shows the taste of the wine. And this the taste remains in the intervals between meals, creating a special background for communication, conversation, feeling meal as a holiday. This applies above all to the table wines.

There are many recommendations and opinions about the amount of consumed wine. There are specialists who claim that alcohol in any form and quantity of harmful. But the majority of scientists, nutritionists still think that a reasonable dose high-quality alcoholic beverages are not only not harmful, but are useful for health. What are they reasonable dose? Each of them their own, in depending on body weight and individual peculiarities of the organism. But the majority of experts agree in opinion, that the consumption of 50 ml cognac, or 100-150 ml of fortified wine or 300-400 ml of table wine relatively harmless for health (in the world, as we know, there is nothing absolutely useful and absolutely harmful) and, moreover, it is useful for increase of vital tone and prevention of many diseases.

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Выращивание винограда

 

Growing grapes