Growing grapes

 

 

 

Grape varieties and their characteristics

Table varieties of grapes

Technical varieties of grapes

The classification of grape varieties on the novelty

The choice of grape variety

 

Tab is vineyards

Biological characteristics of grapes

Inventory winegrower

Preparation for tab a vineyard

Planting of vines

The quality of seedlings grape

Formation and pruning vines

Guyot system

 

Wine glasshouse culture

Soil conditions and location

Planting grapes

Pruning and forming grapes

Pollination of grapes

Decimation grapes

Supplementary feeding and watering grapes

The harvest of grapes

Pests and diseases of grapes

 

The basic rules grafting grapes

Grafting of grapes eye or bud

Grafting of grapes in a split green shoots

Grafting of grapes to split trunk

Using last year's grape cuttings

Grafting of grapes "green on green'

The method of budding grapes

Kilchevanie of grapes

Care of grafted grape plants

Reproduction of the grape

Wintering grapes

Derivation of frost varieties of grapes

 

The use of grapes for landscaping

Planting grapes at the walls and arbors

Formation and pruning vines for greenery

 

Care of vineyards

Artificial pollination of grapes

Fertilizers for grapes

Recovering the vines from frost damage

Elimination of thinning grapes

Pruning of vine

Green operations in the Vineyard

Improving the quality of grapes

 

Methods of protection of grapes

Pests of grapevine

Diseases of the vine

Weed plants

Protection of vineyards from disease

Definition of diseases of grapes on the external signs of injury

Protecting grapes from pests and diseases

Characteristics of herbicides permitted for use

Precautions when working with pesticides

 

Collection and processing of grapes

Collection and storage of grapes

Grapes in cooking

 

Making a home of grape wine

Dry wines

Dessert wines

Manufacturing technology of sweet dessert of grape wine

The composition of grape wine

Diseases of the wine

Classification of wines

Table wines

Local wines

Quality wines

Wine tasting

Making wine from fruit and berries

Storage of wine

 

Culture of wine drinking

Culture of wine consumption

 

The composition of grape wine

Wine is a complex colloidal product, consisting of water, alcohol, sugar, acids, protein, tanning, coloring, aromatic and mineral substances, and also vitamins. Natural (table) grape wine stores almost all components of the substance contained in the fresh berries the grapes.

The largest specific weight in grape wine falls on the water: 860-940 g/l, or 86-94%. The number of alcohol varies depending on the brand of the wine. The table wines it to 14 %, for the strong - up to 20 %, dessert - up to 16%, sparkling up to 12.5 vol.%.

Carbohydrates are mainly represented by glucose, fructose, sucrose, pentose; in dry wines them from 0.1 to a 0.25 % (tracks), in the strong - from 0.2 to 1.0, semi-sweet and sweet - from 3 to 20, in liqueur wines of more than 20 %. The big advantage of carbohydrates grape wines is their high caloric content and digestibility the human body. In 100 g of dessert wine contains up to 80 calories. Approximately the same number of calories contain 50 g of bread, 150 ml of milk, 100 grams of potatoes, 200 g of pears.

From organic acids prevail tartaric, malic, citric, amber, lactic and acetic. Acidity is determined by the content of titratable acid in grams per litre of wine (ppm) and can vary from 2.5 to 9 g/l. Organic acids grape wines motivate many processes in the body, contribute to digestion, facilitate the action of pepsin.

Tanning substances presented from traces (in white wines) up to 4 g/l (in red). They are very active in biological, have the properties of vitamin e and have beneficial influence on the walls of the blood vessels, strengthening them.

Colorantsturning into wine from the grapes, give him the natural color from almost colorless green to ruby and garnet.

The aromatic substances, or essential oil grapes. In the wine distinguish fragrance, made by a grade of grapes, and the bouquet is complex odorous substances (higher alcohols, esters, aldehydes, nucleic acids, vanillin), formed in the process of aging and processing of wines.

Vitamins are biocatalists. Of water-soluble vitamins in the wine there are vitamin C (up to 15 mg/l), widely represented vitamins of group B, and nicotinic acid.

Mineral substances grape wines presented potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, iron, manganese, chlorine, iodine, copper. Dessert wines of the Southern coast of the Crimea rich in colloids (proteins, polysaccharides, etc.).

Due to the chemical composition of the grape wine has potential energy, almost completely used by the human body. 1 l of dry natural wine gives from 600 to 750 calories, 1 l of port - 1200, 1 litre of wine -dessert up to 1,500 calories. Contained in grape wine microelements are catalysts (accelerators) and regulators of metabolism in the human body. A favorable combination of the fault of alcohol, organic acids, sugar, various mineral substances makes the wine strong the bio-energetic drink.

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Growing grapes