Growing grapes

 

 

 

Grape varieties and their characteristics

Table varieties of grapes

Technical varieties of grapes

The classification of grape varieties on the novelty

The choice of grape variety

 

Tab is vineyards

Biological characteristics of grapes

Inventory winegrower

Preparation for tab a vineyard

Planting of vines

The quality of seedlings grape

Formation and pruning vines

Guyot system

 

Wine glasshouse culture

Soil conditions and location

Planting grapes

Pruning and forming grapes

Pollination of grapes

Decimation grapes

Supplementary feeding and watering grapes

The harvest of grapes

Pests and diseases of grapes

 

The basic rules grafting grapes

Grafting of grapes eye or bud

Grafting of grapes in a split green shoots

Grafting of grapes to split trunk

Using last year's grape cuttings

Grafting of grapes "green on green'

The method of budding grapes

Kilchevanie of grapes

Care of grafted grape plants

Reproduction of the grape

Wintering grapes

Derivation of frost varieties of grapes

 

The use of grapes for landscaping

Planting grapes at the walls and arbors

Formation and pruning vines for greenery

 

Care of vineyards

Artificial pollination of grapes

Fertilizers for grapes

Recovering the vines from frost damage

Elimination of thinning grapes

Pruning of vine

Green operations in the Vineyard

Improving the quality of grapes

 

Methods of protection of grapes

Pests of grapevine

Diseases of the vine

Weed plants

Protection of vineyards from disease

Definition of diseases of grapes on the external signs of injury

Protecting grapes from pests and diseases

Characteristics of herbicides permitted for use

Precautions when working with pesticides

 

Collection and processing of grapes

Collection and storage of grapes

Grapes in cooking

 

Making a home of grape wine

Dry wines

Dessert wines

Manufacturing technology of sweet dessert of grape wine

The composition of grape wine

Diseases of the wine

Classification of wines

Table wines

Local wines

Quality wines

Wine tasting

Making wine from fruit and berries

Storage of wine

 

Culture of wine drinking

Culture of wine consumption

 

Characteristics of herbicides permitted for use

Atrazine is available as a wettable powder (WP) containing 50% active ingredient. The drug is a white or grayish color, odorless, insoluble in water but forms a stable suspension in it, is chemically stable and does not change during prolonged storage. Not flammable, non-corrosive metal, does not destroy the skin tissue.

Atrazine is a herbicide selective action, enters the plant through the roots and leaves. In the vineyards used to kill annual and perennial, monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weeds. The soil is sprayed in early spring before weed emergence or after harvest in autumn. The consumption rate of the drug to the lungs and poor soils is 4-8 kg / ha in spring and autumn of 12-14, on heavy soils it increases by 2-4 kg / ha. After spraying, cultivation is carried to a depth of 6-8 cm preparation loses activity in the soil for 1-2 years.

 

Gerbatoks - wettable powder containing 50% active ingredient. The drug is a white or light gray, the water forms a stable suspension. In the vineyards used to kill annual broadleaf and grass plants. Applied to the soil in early spring before weed emergence. The consumption rate of the drug 4,8-8 kg / ha. Gerbatoks is not harmful to beneficial insects to humans and warm-blooded animals small toxic.

 

Dalapon. White soluble in water powder (WP), which contains 85% active ingredient. The drug is well absorbed by the leaves and used for spraying weeds vegetating. It is effective against annual grasses (mouse, millet, chicken, wild oats) and perennial (couch, Guma, Cynodon) weeds. The herbicide moves into young plants by phloem in the roots and in leaves. The drug acts slowly - even sensitive plants die back to him only after 2-3 weeks after treatment. Have damaged crops in the leaves curl up, curve, turn yellow, there is plenty of tillering. Dalapon applied in vineyards in normal 4,7-10 kg / ha of spray weeds vegetating in strict contact with the solution to preventing bush vines. Small toxic drug for humans and warm-blooded animals, bees and beneficial insects are not dangerous.

 

Diuron is available as a 80% second with WP/ Preparation of white or light gray in color, insoluble in water but forms a stable suspension in it, is chemically stable. In the vineyards used to kill annual dicotyledonous and cereal plants by spraying the soil in early spring before weed emergence from its incorporation to a depth of 6-8 cm application rate 3-5 kg ​​/ ha.

Diuron is not dangerous to bees and other beneficial insects to humans and warm-blooded animals small toxic.

 

Karagard 3587 is available as a 50% second with WP/ Effective against amaranth, daisies, sorrel horse, nightshade, field sow-thistle, bindweed, barnyard millet, wild oats, wheat grass. Humanely and Cynodon resistant to the drug.

It is recommended to spray the soil in early spring before weed emergence, but subject to protection of vines. Application rate of the drug 15-20 kg / ha at a flow rate of the working solution of 800 l / ha.

Karagard refers to low-toxic substances in the soil can be maintained over a year.

 

Roundup - aqueous solution (a. s.) Containing 36% active ingredient glifosfat. Destroys the couch, Cynodon, wild oats, ragweed, shepherd's purse and other weeds. Against recalcitrant rhizomatous weeds are used when a plant height of 10 - 15 cm annual weeds are more susceptible to the drug in the early stages of development.

Roundup is moving from the aerial parts of plants in the root system. Inhibits the growth of weeds for 3-4 months. The soil is rapidly degraded and most subsequent crops is not dangerous. In dry and warm weather, the action of the drug is 2-3 days after application. It causes loss of turgor, color change and the gradual drying of the leaves and stems, and by the end of the growing season - the withering away of the rhizomes of perennial grass weeds. Roundup is used on vineyards in the rate of 2-4 l / ha. After contact with bushes drug causes death of leaves and green shoots. On the damaged bushes of wintering buds develop new shoots, and they continue to grow normally.

 

Simazine is available as a 80% second with WP/ Preparation of white, odorless, very slightly soluble in water, resistant to light, moisture, acids, alkalis. Its effectiveness depends on the type of soil and its physical-chemical properties (moisture, humus content, pH, etc.). The drug is slowly moved along the soil profile, reaching a depth during the vegetation period not exceeding 10 cm in the soil breaks down slowly, has a long after-effect (on black eath soils of 2-3 years, on light sandy to 2 years). Simazine is effective against the majority occurring in the vineyards of annual broadleaf and grass, and perennial broadleaf weeds (pink sow thistle, bindweed Field) in the stage of seedlings. Against perennial grass weeds (Agropyron, Cynodon, GUM) is ineffective. The drug is applied in early spring before weed emergence to rate of 2.5-5 kg ​​/ ha or in autumn after the harvest is normally 3,7-7,5 kg / ha by spraying the soil with its mandatory incorporation to a depth of 6-8 cm in recommended application rates of simazine practically non-toxic to bees to humans and warm-blooded animals small toxic.

 

Fosulen - with WP white or light gray in color, contains 50% active ingredient. The drug is effective against couch grass, cynodon, wild oats, ragweed, shepherd's purse and other weeds. It is used in normal 2,8-7,2 kg / ha. Fosulen enters the plant through the leaves and stems and into the root system. Causes loss of turgor, and shrinkage of the change in color of the leaves and stems, and then dying roots of perennial grass weeds. Avoid contact with the drug on the vines.

In Table. 1 shows the consumption rate of each herbicide and timing of drug administration.

Table 1

The rules and terms of application of herbicides

or weed control in vineyardsх

Preparation

The consumption rate of the drug, kg / ha (physical weight)

spring before weed emergence seedling

autumn after the harvest

spraying weeds vegetating

 

Atrazine, 50% w. p.

4,0Ч12,0

12,0Ч16,0

Ч

Gerbatoks, 50% w. p.

4,8Ч8,0

 

Ч

Diuron, 80% w. p.

3,0Ч5,0

Ч

Ч

Karagard 3587, 50%w. p.

15,0Ч20,0*

Ч

Ч

Simazine, 80% w. p.

2,5Ч5,0

3,75Ч7,5

Ч

Dalapon, 85% w. p.

Ч

Ч

4,7Ч10,0*

Roundup, 36% water p.

 

 

2,0Ч4,0*

Fosulen, 50% w. p.

 

 

2,8Ч7,2*

 

Contact (soil) herbicides in early spring before making seedling emergence of weeds or autumn after the harvest of grapes. In both cases, their effectiveness depends on the uniformity of distribution on the soil surface. Therefore, before making any herbicide vineyards carefully cleaned from the cropped twigs, remnants of last year's weeds, process and level the soil, and after the introduction of the cultivation is carried out to a depth of 6-8 cm

Soil herbicides make all-over and tape method. With continuous treatment spray the soil surface in rows and between rows, and when the tape - only in the ranks. On 1 hectare of cultivated area spend 800-1000 l of working solution. Herbicides are more effective in high humidity conditions.

Systemic herbicides are used against perennial rhizomatous grass weeds during their growing season. Preparations are making in areas of distribution of wheat grass, cynodon, guma. They are most active against the weeds at a height of 10-15 cm plant vines are very susceptible to systemic herbicides. After contact with drugs leaves penetrate the plant, causing their depression or death. The vineyards are intended for processing or dalapon fosulen require special training. Before spraying with herbicides is carried out and removed a green garter growth. Treatment of weeds is carried out in calm weather with shields that prevent the penetration of herbicides in grape leaves.

Dalapon, Roundup and fosulen water-soluble and easily washed off the leaves with summer precipitation. However, they can penetrate into the zone of the bulk of the roots of grape and cause extinction. To improve the efficiency of systemic herbicides processing is carried out in dry weather. In order to better drugs held OP-7 or OP-10 at the rate of 0.15-0.2 kg per 100 liters of solution.

The most effective herbicides with the alternation of drugs during the 3 - and 4-year cycles. For example, in the first year in April, making simazine. At year 2 plot was treated at the same time, atrazine, and pockets of rhizomatous weeds sprayed in late May or dalapon Roundup. On the third year in early spring make simazine in a mixture with atrazine on two standards of each. This cycle allows the use of herbicides to clear stand against all kinds of weeds.

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Growing grapes